Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Place of publication
Cary, NC, United States
Oxford University Press
The oxidative metabolic activity of granulocytes can be directly examined by chemiluminescence, a laboratory technique that measures photon emission during well-defined inflammatory or microbicidal events. Numerous studies have utilized chemiluminescence to examine early changes during infectious diseases and other pathologic processes. Studies have suggested that receptors on cell surfaces and oxygenation of granulocytes can reflect the severity of disease as well as provide early diagnostic information. Diseases within virtually every subspecialty of medicine have been studied in this respect, but most investigations have focused on infectious and autoimmune conditions. The present review summarizes current progress in laboratory methods and evaluates the potential application of recently published clinical data. It is apparent that during disease myeloperoxidase- and oxidase-dependent oxygenation activities reflect separate host responses, and independent measurements of these activities will offer a more meaningful understanding of host defense. Immune complexes and other factors in serum may also interact with granulocytes to alter the receptors on cell surfaces and subsequent metabolic activity. In some circumstances, enhanced function of granulocytes may be detrimental to the host.