Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children were published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Changes in the antibiotic susceptibility patterns for the common pathogens causing both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis warrant a reevaluation and update of these recommendations. In addition, there was only a very brief discussion of chronic disease in this publication, with the conclusion that the pathogenesis and management of recurrent or prolonged infection were essentially unknown. Although there are still insufficient data in the literature to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines, a careful review of recent literature and the clinical experience of experts who manage pediatric chronic sinusitis are presented in an effort to provide some specific recommendations and to offer practical treatment options. Factors associated with chronic rhinosinusitis should be addressed individually and include environmental pollution, recurrent viral upper respiratory infections, allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency, gastroesophageal reflux, and anatomic abnormalities.