Non-prescription medicines and Australian community pharmacy interventions: Rates and clinical significance

Williams, Kylie A., Emmerton, Lynne M., Taylor, Richard, Werner, Joel and Benrimoj, Shalon Isaac (2011) Non-prescription medicines and Australian community pharmacy interventions: Rates and clinical significance. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 19 3: 156-165. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00091.x

Author Williams, Kylie A.
Emmerton, Lynne M.
Taylor, Richard
Werner, Joel
Benrimoj, Shalon Isaac
Title Non-prescription medicines and Australian community pharmacy interventions: Rates and clinical significance
Journal name International Journal of Pharmacy Practice   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0961-7671
Publication date 2011-06
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00091.x
Volume 19
Issue 3
Start page 156
End page 165
Total pages 10
Place of publication West Sussex , United Kingdom
Publisher John Wiley and Sons
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objective To quantify pharmacy intervention rates for non-prescription medications
(pharmacist-only and pharmacy medicines), to document the clinical significance
of these interventions and to determine the adverse health consequences and
subsequent health care avoided as a result of the interventions.
Methods Non-prescription medicines interventions undertaken by community
pharmacy staff were recorded in two field studies: a study of all Australian pharmacies
to determine incidence rates for low-incidence, highly significant interventions,
and a study of a sample of pharmacies to collect data on all non-prescription interventions.
Recorded interventions were assessed by a clinical panel for clinical significance,
potential adverse health consequence avoided, probability and likely duration
of the adverse health consequence.
Key findings The rate of professional intervention that occurs in Australia for
pharmacist-only and pharmacy medicines is 5.66 per 1000 unit sales (95% confidence
interval 4.79–6.64). Rates of intervention varied by clinical significance.When
considering health care avoided, the main impact of the interventions was avoidance
of urgent general practitioner (GP) visits, followed by avoidance of regular GP visits
and accident and emergency treatment. The most common adverse health consequences
avoided were exacerbations of an existing condition (e.g. hypertension,
asthma) and adverse drug effects.
Conclusions This study demonstrates the way in which community pharmacy
encourages appropriate non-prescription medicine use and prevents harmthrough
intervening at the point of supply. It was estimated that Australian pharmacies
perform 485 912 interventions per annum when dealing with non-prescription
medicines, with 101 324 per annum being interventions that avert emergency
medical attention or serious harm, or which are potentially life saving.
Keyword Australia
Community pharmacy
Drug-related problems
Over the counter
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
School of Pharmacy Publications
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Citation counts: Scopus Citation Count Cited 3 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 31 May 2011, 11:11:36 EST by Charna Kovacevic on behalf of School of Pharmacy