High-RI resist polymers for 193 nm immersion lithography

Whittaker, AK, Blakey, I, Liu, HP, Hill, DJT, George, GA, Conley, W and Zimmerman, P (2005). High-RI resist polymers for 193 nm immersion lithography. In: Conference on Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, San Jose, CA, United States, (827-835). 28 February - 2 March 2005. doi:10.1117/12.600630

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Author Whittaker, AK
Blakey, I
Liu, HP
Hill, DJT
George, GA
Conley, W
Zimmerman, P
Title of paper High-RI resist polymers for 193 nm immersion lithography
Conference name Conference on Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII
Conference location San Jose, CA, United States
Conference dates 28 February - 2 March 2005
Journal name Proceedings of SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering   Check publisher's open access policy
Place of Publication Bellingham, WA, United States
Publisher SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication Year 2005
Sub-type Fully published paper
DOI 10.1117/12.600630
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
ISBN 0-8194-5733-7
ISSN 0277-786X
Volume 5753
Start page 827
End page 835
Total pages 9
Language eng
Abstract/Summary A critical aim within the field of 193 nm immersion lithography is the development of high refractive index immersion fluids and resists. Increases in the refractive index (RI) of the immersion fluid will result in increases in the numerical aperture and depth of focus. Increasing the RI of resist polymers will improve exposure latitude for the process. A challenge for increasing the RI of resist polymers is to do so without detrimentally affecting other properties of the polymer such as transparency, line edge roughness, adhesion and plasma etch resistance. It is well known in the literature that introducing sulfur, bromine or aromatic groups into a polymer structure will increase its RI. However, due to the relatively strong absorption of phenyl groups at 193 nm these groups have to be avoided. Furthermore, the use of bromine poses problems associated with contamination of the silicon wafer. Hence, in this study, a systematic approach has been used to increase the sulfur content of 193 nm type resist polymers, by synthesis of sulfur-containing monomers and by performing bulk modifications of the polymer. The effect of sulfur content on the RI at 193 nm was then investigated. A broad study of the relationship between molecular structure and RI dispersion from 250-180 nm has also been undertaken, and conclusions drawn using QSPR methodologies. Finally, the effect of sulfur content on other lithography parameters, such as transparency, adhesion and plasma etch resistance, was also evaluated.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article # 96

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Created: Tue, 26 Apr 2011, 11:25:28 EST by Associate Professor Idriss Blakey on behalf of Aust Institute for Bioengineering & Nanotechnology