Objective measurement of clinical findings in the use of botulinum toxin type A for the management of children with cerebral palsy

Boyd, R. N. and Graham, H. K. (1999) Objective measurement of clinical findings in the use of botulinum toxin type A for the management of children with cerebral palsy. European Journal of Neurology, 6 Suppl. 4: S23-S35. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.1999.tb00031.x


Author Boyd, R. N.
Graham, H. K.
Title Objective measurement of clinical findings in the use of botulinum toxin type A for the management of children with cerebral palsy
Journal name European Journal of Neurology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1351-5101
1468-1331
Publication date 1999-11
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1468-1331.1999.tb00031.x
Volume 6
Issue Suppl. 4
Start page S23
End page S35
Total pages 13
Language eng
Abstract Clinicians use a range of clinical and objective measures to quantify the positive and negative features (impairments) of the upper motor neurone syndrome. These measures play an important role in the assessment and selection of suitable candidates for intervention and monitoring of outcome. Intervention strategies often focus on the positive features; however, outcome may be more contingent upon the severity of the negative features. The clinical protocol for patient selection and treatment used by our multidisciplinary team is presented, together with details of the assessment procedure. Measurement tools in routine use are described, including: the Modified Ashworth Scale, the Modified Tardieu Scale (‘R1’), muscle length by joint range of motion ‘R2’, three-dimensional gait analysis, assessments of strength by the Medical Research Council Scale, Selective Motor Control, the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Observational Gait Scale. Three case studies of children with cerebral palsy who underwent botulinum toxin type A treatment as part of their management of gait disorder are presented, a 2-year-old girl with mild hemiplegia (‘true equinus’), a 3-year-old boy with moderate hemiplegia (‘apparent equinus’) and a 6-year-old girl with diplegia, where a targeted approach was used to treat a distal problem and resulted in correction Of a proximal problem.
Keyword cerebral palsy
spasticity
children
botulinum toxin type A
physiotherapy
GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION
A TOXIN
MUSCLE
RELIABILITY
INJECTION
LIMB
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 121 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus Article
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Thu, 10 Mar 2011, 10:15:20 EST