Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors

Ogoma, Sheila B., Lweitoijera, Dickson W., Ngonyani, Hassan, Furer, Benjamin, Russell, Tanya L., Mukabana, Wolfgang R., Killeen, Gerry F. and Moore, Sarah J. (2010) Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4 8: e773.1-e773.8. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000773

Author Ogoma, Sheila B.
Lweitoijera, Dickson W.
Ngonyani, Hassan
Furer, Benjamin
Russell, Tanya L.
Mukabana, Wolfgang R.
Killeen, Gerry F.
Moore, Sarah J.
Title Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors
Journal name PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1935-2727
Publication date 2010-08-03
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000773
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 4
Issue 8
Start page e773.1
End page e773.8
Total pages 8
Editor Neal D. E. Alexander
Peter Hotez
Place of publication San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.
Publisher Public Library of Science
Collection year 2011
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases.

Methodology: The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control.

Findings: 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant.

Significance: This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria.

Author Summary: Mosquito vectors that transmit filariasis and several arboviruses such as Rift Valley Fever, Chikungunya and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria co-occur across tropical Africa. These diseases are co-endemic in most rural African countries where they are transmitted by the same mosquito vectors. The only control measure currently in widespread use is mass drug administration for filariasis. In this study, we used controlled experiments to evaluate the benefit of screening the main mosquito entry points into houses, namely, eaves, windows and doors. This study aims to illustrate the potential of screening specific house openings with the intention of preventing endophagic mosquitoes from entering houses and thus reducing contact between humans and vectors of neglected tropical diseases. This study confirms that while full house screening is effective for reducing indoor densities of Culex spp. mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone has a great potential for integrated control of neglected tropical diseases and malaria.
Copyright: © 2010 Ogoma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keyword Anopheles-gambiae complex
Insecticide-treated nets
Valley fever virus
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ
Additional Notes Article number e773

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Non HERDC
ERA 2012 Admin Only
School of Public Health Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 30 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 32 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 08 Mar 2011, 15:29:40 EST by Geraldine Fitzgerald on behalf of !NON-HERDC