Background: Cortical plasticity underlies the brain's ability to compensate and adapt after neurological and musculoskeletal injury. However, increasing evidence demonstrates that plasticity can also be maladaptive, contributing to functional impairment in a variety of conditions. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging brain stimulation technique with the potential to alter cortical plasticity and prime the brain to enhance learning. If the potential of this technique can be harnessed, tDCS may provide a novel therapeutic approach in physiotherapy practice.
Objectives: This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms, stimulation parameters and clinical applications of tDCS.