Modern theories of social behavior are based on the largely unquestioned assumption that human activity is determined by cognitive variables. Physiology, environment, and behavior are seen as peripheral to the understanding of cognition, seen as central to the understanding of human nature. This paper argues that these approaches to psychology are essentially metaphorical models of behavior, inadequate as explanatory theories, because they rely on untestable assumptions concerning the centrality to human behavior of hypothetical and unmeasurable cognitive variables. Their lack of precision does not allow for the testing of specific predictions. This paper argues that contemporary cognitive-behavioral and cognitive-social theories cannot be salvaged as explanatory models.