The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia

Gambley, C. F., Miles, A. K., Ramsden, M., Doogan, V., Thomas, J. E., Parmenter, K. and Whittle, P. J. L. (2009) The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 38 6: 547-557. doi:10.1071/AP09043


Author Gambley, C. F.
Miles, A. K.
Ramsden, M.
Doogan, V.
Thomas, J. E.
Parmenter, K.
Whittle, P. J. L.
Title The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia
Journal name Australasian Plant Pathology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0815-3191
1448-6032
Publication date 2009-01-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1071/AP09043
Volume 38
Issue 6
Start page 547
End page 557
Total pages 11
Place of publication Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and closely related species, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This disease, previously exotic to Australia, was detected on a single farm [infested premise-1, (IP1). IP is the terminology used in official biosecurity protocols to describe a locality at which an exotic plant pest has been confirmed or is presumed to exist. IP are numbered sequentially as they are detected] in Emerald, Queensland in July 2004. During the following 10 months the disease was subsequently detected on two other farms (IP2 and IP3) within the same area and studies indicated the disease first occurred on IP1 and spread to IP2 and IP3. The oldest, naturally infected plant tissue observed on any of these farms indicated the disease was present on IP1 for several months before detection and established on IP2 and IP3 during the second quarter (i.e. autumn) 2004. Transect studies on some IP1 blocks showed disease incidences ranged between 52 and 100% (trees infected). This contrasted to very low disease incidence, less than 4% of trees within a block, on IP2 and IP3. The mechanisms proposed for disease spread within blocks include weather-assisted dispersal of the bacterium (e.g. wind-driven rain) and movement of contaminated farm equipment, in particular by pivot irrigator towers via mechanical damage in combination with abundant water. Spread between blocks on IP2 was attributed to movement of contaminated farm equipment and/or people. Epidemiology results suggest: (i) successive surveillance rounds increase the likelihood of disease detection; (ii) surveillance sensitivity is affected by tree size; and (iii) individual destruction zones (for the purpose of eradication) could be determined using disease incidence and severity data rather than a predefined set area.
Keyword Axonopodis PV.-Citri
Xanthomonas-campestris
Genus Citrus
Susceptibility
Strains
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
ERA 2012 Admin Only
 
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Created: Tue, 22 Feb 2011, 18:45:30 EST