Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

Tulsiani, S. M., Moore, P. R., Jansen, C. C., Van Den Hurk, A. F., Moore, F. A. J., Simmons, R. J. and Craig, S. B. (2011) Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 105 1: 1-11. doi:10.1179/136485911X12899838413547

Author Tulsiani, S. M.
Moore, P. R.
Jansen, C. C.
Van Den Hurk, A. F.
Moore, F. A. J.
Simmons, R. J.
Craig, S. B.
Title Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus
Formatted title
Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus
Journal name Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0003-4983
Publication date 2011-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1179/136485911X12899838413547
Volume 105
Issue 1
Start page 1
End page 11
Total pages 11
Place of publication London, England
Publisher Maney
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs).

The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have all been characterised by acute respiratory and neurological manifestations, with high levels of morbidity and mortality in the affected horses and humans. The modes of transmission of HeV remain largely unknown. Although fruit bats have been identified as natural hosts of the virus, direct bat-horse, bat-human or human-human transmission has not been reported. Human infection can occur via exposure to infectious urine, saliva or nasopharyngeal fluid from horses. The treatment options and efficacy are very limited and no vaccine exists. Reports on the outbreaks of HeV in Australia are collated in this review and the available data on the biology, transmission and detection of the pathogen are summarized and discussed.
Q-Index Code CX
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
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Created: Wed, 09 Feb 2011, 09:38:33 EST by Suhella Tulsiani on behalf of School of Biological Sciences