Evidence-based policy and practice (EBPP) involves complex issues of design, implementation and evaluation. While there are several grounds for scepticism about the capacity of government and other organisations to implement reasonably robust forms of EBPP, some of the practical impediments are readily identifiable. This article proposes ten dimensions of capability that might underlie practical improvements in EBPP. We describe these as challenges and opportunities for learning, rather than prescriptive requirements or technical guidelines or checklists. This framework addresses a spectrum of implementation issues at the organisational and individual level that are vital for evidence-based (or more evidence-informed) approaches within policy and practice contexts. There may be some overlap in how these dimensions are conceptualised, but it is argued that taking all dimensions into account is important for supporting a more coherent approach. The practical configuration of EBPP support systems will vary across fields of policy and practice. Future experience and further research should assist in learning how consideration of such issues can assist in protecting and promoting the interests of programs, clients, practitioners, and policy-makers.