The economic and social development of a country requires changes in the way of life of the indigenous people with respect to the existing social and economic attitudes. The introduction of modern economic and social institutions as the two sets of institutions are often founded on diametrically opposed principles. This thesis examines the inhibiting effects of these conflicts on the agricultural development of the subsistence economics, with particular reference to Papua New Guinea.
In Chapter 1 the types of societies to be studied are introduced, and four aspects of these societies are examined, the purpose being to illustrate how these societies differ from Western developed societies. First, the type or pattern of the economy is examined, the main features being; it is a subsistence economy; these is a lack of economic specialization and the profit motive; wealth is seen as a status symbol rather than as working capital and the economy tends to be static and changeless. Second, the ten major socio-political systems in Papua New Guinea are defined. Third, traditional religion and its importance are discussed and finally, the range of socio-cultural variation is examined.
Chapter 2 involves a discussion of the theory of agricultural development and the following aspects are covered. First, the contribution of the agricultural sector to overall development is discussed and the following sectoral aspects are then examined: the need for, and development of an economic infrastructure; the development of model socio-political and legal; land tenure and the need for reform and the function of agricultural prices and appropriate pricing policies.
In Chapter 3 the conflicts between traditional and modern institutions and attitudes are examined and the following aspects are covered: the inhibiting effects of traditional societies and economic attitudes, motivation and reasons for production; attitudes towards land and land tenure; the influence of traditional socio-political organization on economic behaviour; the influence of traditional religion on economic behaviour and socio-political conflicts.
The concluding chapter examines implications of the above conflicts for agricultural development and possible policies to be introduced.