The purpose of this study is to investigate the four fundamental off-balance-sheet financial instruments - forwards, futures, swaps and options - not as four unique instruments and markets, but rather as four interrelated instruments for managing financial risk. How the four off-balance-sheet basic financial instruments can be combined together to manage financial risks (interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk and commodity price risk), and how they can be used to redesign and to create new and customized financial instruments are the basic issues to be developed in this report. However, to present and discuss the implementation of these four building blocks the concept of "Financial Engineering" is introduced, as well as what will be expected in the process of financial innovation, and what creative solutions financial engineers have developed to minimize and to solve corporate finance problems. Essentially, the intention of this report is to cover the new financial instruments and the principles of managing financial risk. Also, the modern hedging techniques will be discussed covering: forward exchange contracts, forward rate agreements, break forward contracts, currency options, currency futures, currency swaps, interest rate futures, interest rate swaps, and interest rate options.