Towards fault-tolerant linear optics quantum computing

Alexander Hayes (2010). Towards fault-tolerant linear optics quantum computing PhD Thesis, School of Mathematics & Physics, The University of Queensland.

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Author Alexander Hayes
Thesis Title Towards fault-tolerant linear optics quantum computing
School, Centre or Institute School of Mathematics & Physics
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2010-10
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Professor Tim Ralph
Assoc Professor Alexei Gilchrist
Total pages 150
Total colour pages 9
Total black and white pages 141
Subjects 02 Physical Sciences
Abstract/Summary Quantum computing is an exciting field that promises great improvements to our ability to solve certain intractable classes of problem. Implementing a quantum computer will require a physical system in which quantum effects are strongly evident. Many different physical systems have been proposed for this task, including ion traps, quantum dots, neutral atoms and photons. This thesis focuses on optical implementations of a quantum computer, and specifically on single-photon designs, as opposed to those utilising coherent states. Photonic systems have shown a great deal of promise for quantum computing tasks since it was shown by Knill, Laflamme and Milburn (KLM) that scalable efficient quantum computing could be performed using only linear optical elements and measurement. This was made viable through the use of error-correcting codes. The work in this thesis covers the use of error-correcting codes in single-photon linear optics quantum computing (LOQC). The central feature of these schemes is the parity code introduced by KLM and used to overcome the gate errors that are inherent in this type of LOQC. First is a discussion of an improved scheme that incorporates the fusion gates used in Browne and Rudolph's cluster state proposal in order to simplify the encoding and gate procedures. This results in high-probability gates with a resource usage comparable to the cluster state schemes. The remainder of the thesis examines the application of further error correcting codes to handle other errors that may arise in any practical implementation of an optical quantum computer. The most significant type of error in any optical system is photon loss, and hence an extension of the parity code is presented that allows loss errors to be detected and corrected. Procedures for performing universal quantum computation whilst employing this encoding are also described. These enable the establishment of loss thresholds for parity-state based LOQC, revealing this code is capable of handling up to 10\% loss in all elements during general computation, or 17\% if it is used solely as an active memory. Although loss is the most common type of optical error, other types of error will also become an issue when attempting to produce large quantum computing systems. An analysis of the error thresholds and resource usage which can be expected when applying a general error correcting code such as the Steane code to this type of LOQC system is also presented. The error thresholds and resource requirements established are greater than those found for cat state optical quantum computing, but fall below those calculated for cluster states. However, the resource requirements of the scheme are significantly smaller than the cluster state requirements for an equivalent circuit. Finally, a new experiment is proposed, achievable with today's technology, for testing the loss-tolerant encoding described earlier. Expansions of the experiment that would demonstrate tolerance of actual experimental error are also discussed.
Keyword quantum optics
quantum computing
parity state
error correction
photon loss
Additional Notes Colour pages: 88, 90, 93, 95, 106, 107, 109, 126, 127

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Created: Mon, 15 Nov 2010, 22:45:10 EST by Mr Alexander Hayes on behalf of Library - Information Access Service