This thesis presents a comparative study of leadership and culture in Australia and New Zealand. The research is a subsidiary study of the Global Leader and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program (House et aI., 1997) which involves a world-wide network of researchers coordinated to describe, to understand, and to predict the impact of cultural variables on leadership and the effectiveness of these processes. This thesis presents an analysis of data collected by Ashkanasy and Falkus (1997) and is intended to provide a comparison of what constitutes effective leadership in Australia and New Zealand.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify the existence of universal leadership dimensions and culture-specific dimensions of leadership. The results strongly support the existence of a universal Visionary/Inspirational and Narcissistic/Non-Participative leadership dimension which respectively facilitate and impede a leader's effectiveness. The results also indicate that the interpretation of leadership varies across cultures. In particular, the GLOBE etic Charismatic/Value Based dimension was renamed Visionary/Inspirational to reflect its emic manifestation.
In Australia, culture-specific dimensions of leadership labelled "Mateship", "Egalitarianism", and "Individualism" emerged. In New Zealand the culture-specific dimensions of leadership entitled "Egalitarian Team Leader", "Bureaucrat", and "Internal Autonomy" were identified. Australian leaders were found to have a social, affiliative approach to leadership, while New Zealand leaders had an outcome orientated team spirit approach. Charisma was not found to be a strong contributor to a leader's perceived effectiveness in each country. It was also found that New Zealanders are better able to understand the Australian leadership style than Australians understand that of New Zealand.