This thesis explores the question of whether e-commerce assisted SME internationalisation in the biotechnology industries is impeded by host country institutional factors. In order to examine this research question, literature is drawn from international business theories, particularly the Uppsala Internationalisation Process Models, institutional theory and ecommerce. There has been limited research on firm internationalisation pertaining to SMEs, despite increasing awareness of its important role in the economy. Moreover, little literature exists in explaining the e-commerce revolution in the context of international business theories. Propositions are derived from the discussion of the literature in Chapter 2 in an attempt to fill residual gaps in literature by investigating the extent of adoption of the Internet by Australian biotechnology firms in their internationalisation process. To address limitations in the literature, a case study approach of the four firms investigated is undertaken at the individual firm-level. Within the constraints of this research, there is some evidence that ecommerce assisted SME internationalisation in the biotechnology industries is impeded by host country institutional factors. The lack of security of the electronic systems implicitly suggests it to be a deterrent to more fully integrating other aspects of e-commerce into the four firms. Further analysis of the case data revealed that all four firms have preceded in a stepwise manner as derived from the Uppsala Internationalisation Process Models. In addition, evidence assembled suggests that the Uppsala Internationalisation Process Models can be applied to high-technology seeking sectors where many Nordic scholars have proposed otherwise.