Purpose of review: Invasive fungal infections of the lung have historically been associated with an extremely high mortality. This review aims to disseminate the most recent advances in the diagnosis and management of fungal infections of the lung.
Recent findings: The number and diversity of immunosuppressed populations are growing rapidly. Transplant immunosuppression is becoming more aggressive early in the posttransplant period, potentially increasing the risk of invasive fungal infections. The galactomannan antigen test and the β-D-glucan test have emerged as methods of serially monitoring at-risk patients for invasive aspergillosis. Their utility has been established in some neutropenic populations but not in solid organ transplant recipients. In-vitro studies, animal studies, and retrospective human studies support the use of combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Unfortunately no randomized clinical trials exist.