National statistics of drowning (accidental and submersion) for Australia, by State, age and sex have been compiled. The national rate is 3.29 per 100 000 which compares well with that from other countries of similar latitude. The national childhood drowning rate (age group of 0 to 14 years) is 5.19 per 100 000; the rate for the 0 to four years age group ranges from almost zero in the Australian Capital Territory to 15.69 in Queensland. In all States, a drowning rate for preschool children is at least four times that of school children. Preschool versus total drowning ratios have been calculated, by State; the rank order of this data (those of Victoria are highest at 4.65) is further evidence that climatic factors alone are not necessarily major predisposing causes leading to high drowning statistics of preschool children observed in other series.