The influence of diet on plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy dogs

Kathryn Elliott (2009). The influence of diet on plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy dogs MPhil Thesis, Centre for Companion Animal Health, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland.

       
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Author Kathryn Elliott
Thesis Title The influence of diet on plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy dogs
School, Centre or Institute Centre for Companion Animal Health, School of Veterinary Science
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2009-05
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Supervisor Professor Jacquie Rand
Dr Linda Fleeman
Total pages 126
Total colour pages 11
Total black and white pages 115
Subjects 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
Abstract/Summary Diabetes mellitus is a frequent endocrinopathy in dogs. Exogenous insulin and nutritional management are the mainstays of therapy. High carbohydrate and fibre diets have been traditionally recommended for canine diabetes mellitus. However, recent studies in healthy and diabetic dogs have challenged the use of these traditional diabetic diets. In addition, dietary carbohydrate content was found to be the main determinant of postprandial blood glucose concentrations over 1.5 hours in healthy dogs. Increasing carbohydrate content increased blood glucose concentration. In a search of the literature, no studies in dogs were found comparing the effects on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations of a traditionally recommended high carbohydrate and fibre diabetes diet with a moderate carbohydrate and fibre diet, or a commercially-available maintenance diet. Although fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations are commonly used for diagnosis and management of canine hyperlipidemia, a review of the literature found that in human beings, it may not to be predictive of the highest postprandial concentration. Importantly, in overweight and obese dogs with postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations >5 mmol/L (>445 mg/dL), it was found there was a 6 fold increase in risk of laboratory evidence of exocrine pancreatic disease. However, there are limited studies on the effect of maintenance diets on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations in dogs, and no reference intervals determined for a triglyceride meal challenge test in healthy dogs. For the dietary studies in this thesis, animal welfare was of paramount importance, and minimally invasive peripheral venous catheterization and blood collection techniques were needed to collect 4 mL blood samples over 13 hours in conscious dogs. A search of the literature found no studies evaluating the reliability of using peripheral catheterization via the cephalic vein for the collection of larger blood volumes (for example, 4 mL). The aims of this thesis were firstly, to investigate the influence of three diets with varying carbohydrate and fibre content on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy dogs over 12 hours; secondly, to develop a triglyceride meal challenge test and associated reference intervals; and finally, to evaluate a minimally invasive catheterization and blood collection technique for reliability in collecting the blood volumes required for these studies. For the studies in this thesis, twelve healthy dogs were fed each of three diets for three weeks in a three period cross-over design. For the meal response test at the end of each three-week period, 10 blood samples were collected over 13 hours. Reference intervals for fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations at single and multiple time points after eating a standard meal were determined in healthy dogs. Associations between fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations, and time to measure highest postprandial triglyceride concentration were also evaluated. Blood volume obtained, resistance on aspirating the blood sample, and methods used to improve blood flow during collection were recorded for the 358 samples collected. The results of the studies in this thesis demonstrated that a moderate carbohydrate diet resulted in lower peak and postprandial glucose concentrations compared with a traditional diabetic diet (CHO 55 %ME) and a maintenance diet (CHO 45 %ME). Fasting triglyceride concentrations were found not to be predictive of peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations. The highest triglyceride concentration measured at 2, 5, and 6 hours after eating had the closest agreement with peak postprandial triglyceride concentration. Glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in some dogs were significantly above baseline concentrations at 12 hours after eating each of the diets. Of 358 blood samples collected, 93 % achieved the required 4 mL volume, while the remaining samples were greater than 1.5 mL, and 87 % were obtained with minimal resistance. It was concluded that the moderate carbohydrate and fibre test diet warrants evaluation in diabetic dogs. It was found that when following the same protocol, blood samples should be collected 2, 5, and 6 hours after eating to determine the highest postprandial plasma triglyceride concentration. For future nutritional studies, dogs may need to be fasted for at least 12 hours, and analytes measured over at least 12 hours after feeding to evaluate fasting and postprandial plasma analyte concentrations. Finally it was demonstrated that percutaneous catheterization of the cephalic vein using a 20-gauge catheter allows for successful collection of multiple 4 mL blood samples over 13 hours in conscious dogs. This thesis presents new information for future nutritional studies in healthy and diabetic dogs by suggesting that there may be no glycemic benefit feeding the high carbohydrate and fibre diet compared with a moderate carbohydrate and fibre diet. A triglyceride meal challenge test was developed to assist the diagnosis of canine hyperlipidemia. Finally, a minimally invasive method for obtaining serial blood samples was evaluated and described. These findings are expected to help in designing future studies in the nutritional management in healthy dogs, and dogs with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.
Keyword diet
Dogs
Carbohydrate content
Fiber content
Fat content
postprandial
Glucose
Insulin
Triglyceride
Free Fatty-acids
Meal challenge test
Reference intervals
Peripheral venous catheterization
Serial blood sample collection
Cephalic vein
Additional Notes Color print page numbers: 66-67, 92-99, 122

 
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