Clathrin Independent Carriers: Molecular characterisation of a novel clathrin-independent endocytic pathway

Mark Howes (2010). Clathrin Independent Carriers: Molecular characterisation of a novel clathrin-independent endocytic pathway PhD Thesis, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland.

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Author Mark Howes
Thesis Title Clathrin Independent Carriers: Molecular characterisation of a novel clathrin-independent endocytic pathway
School, Centre or Institute Institute for Molecular Bioscience
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2010-02
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Parton, Robert G.
Simpson, Fiona S.
Hancock, John F.
Total pages 198
Total colour pages 38
Total black and white pages 160
Subjects 06 Biological Sciences
Abstract/Summary Endocytosis effectuates a critical interface between the eukaryotic cell and its apposing environment. It is, subsequently, paramount for many physiologically important processes and encompasses a diverse array of mechanisms and pathways. The classical endocytic routes mediated by clathrin and caveolin are the best understood and the molecular roles of their major regulators, such as dynamin, adaptor proteins and various lipid species, are the most comprehensively described. Recent identification of an assortment of constitutive, noncaveolar, clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) pathways has expanded the endocytic system. Unlike the classical endocytic pathways, little is known about the guiding parameters of CIE routes. Consequently, it is not possible to understand the important cellular roles these pathways may be fulfilling. This study has begun to characterise the very basic parameters governing the morphologically striking Clathrin-Independent Carrier (CLIC) pathway. Development of a diverse molecular toolkit has now allowed the quantitation of endocytic capacity provided by CLICs, the visualisation of subtle sorting components of the CLIC pathway, the isolation of novel CLIC cargo and regulators, and has linked this mechanism to the critical cellular processes of cellular migration and membrane repair. Calculation of the individual capacity of endocytic routes provides important information about the contribution of each pathway to total plasma membrane (PM) uptake and turnover. Quantitation of the volume, surface area and number of structures forming per minute in this study shows that CLICs provide the vast majority of constitutive endocytosis, up to four times the capacity of the clathrin mediated endocytic (CME) pathway. As the equivalent of the entire PM area could pass through the CLIC pathway within 12 minutes it is evident that CLICs are fundamental housekeepers of bulk membrane internalisation. Thus, they are likely to be central regulators of PM homeostasis and turnover. High-resolution tomography, in conjunction with analysis of CLIC cargo trafficking, identifies these carriers as complex, pleiomorphic structures that sort the bulk of membrane to early endosomes and recycle cargo back to the cell surface. Such vast internalisation combined with an ability to rapidly recycle components quickly attributes the CLIC pathway as a complex sorting station. Isolation of novel cargo and regulators has identified a striking array of proteins now associated with the CLIC pathway for the first time. A significant proportion of identified targets localise to lipid-rafts and recycle from the PM, facets consistent with association to the CLIC pathway. Numerous targets have also been directly implicated in clathrin-independent endocytosis by independent groups. Verification of selected cargo, such as CD44, Thy-1 and myoferlin, showing specific internalisation through the CLIC pathway, has provided insight into the sorting ability of the CLIC pathway and links to adhesion turnover and membrane recycling. Consistent with a role in cellular adhesion turnover, it was found that CLICs become polarised within migrating cells. This has shown the first instance of spatial separation between three major endocytic routes, CLICs, caveolae and CME and highlights the important and coordinated roles of multiple endocytic pathways during physiologically significant processes. The specific internalisation of paxillin, Thy-1 and CD44 through CLICs at the leading edge of migrating cells suggests that CLICs rapidly turnover adhesion components for dynamic extracellular sensation during directional cell migration. Indeed, specific ablation of the CLIC pathway significantly impedes cellular migration, implying coordination with CME at the leading edge. This study has defined numerous parameters of the CLIC pathway, developing the current understanding of this poorly defined route and places the CLIC pathway as a unique player during critical cellular processes.
Keyword Endocytosis
Clathrin-independent Endocytosis
Gpi-anchored Protein-enriched Early Endosomal Compartment
Lipid Rafts
Membrane Trafficking
Additional Notes 19, 31, 42, 46, 66, 69, 71, 73, 76, 78, 82, 86, 88, 90, 96, 99, 101, 103, 108, 113, 114, 116, 117, 119, 125, 127, 129, 138, 142, 144, 148, 150, 152-154, 161, 164, 165

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Created: Thu, 03 Jun 2010, 15:22:31 EST by Mr Mark Howes on behalf of Library - Information Access Service