Long-standing environmental conditions, geographic isolation and host-symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of coral endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium

LaJeunesse, TC, Pettay, DT, Sampayo, EM, Phongsuwan, N, Brown, B, Obura, DO, Hoegh-Guldberg, O and Fitt, WK (2010) Long-standing environmental conditions, geographic isolation and host-symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of coral endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, 37 5: 785-800. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02273.x


Author LaJeunesse, TC
Pettay, DT
Sampayo, EM
Phongsuwan, N
Brown, B
Obura, DO
Hoegh-Guldberg, O
Fitt, WK
Title Long-standing environmental conditions, geographic isolation and host-symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of coral endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium
Formatted title
Long-standing environmental conditions, geographic isolation and host-symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of coral endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium
Journal name JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0305-0270
Publication date 2010-05
Year available 2010
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02273.x
Volume 37
Issue 5
Start page 785
End page 800
Total pages 16
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Collection year 2011
Language eng
Subject C1
960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl. Marine Ichthyology)
Formatted abstract
Aim
This study examines the importance of geographic proximity, host life history and regional and local differences in environment (temperature and water clarity) in driving the ecological and evolutionary processes underpinning the global patterns of diversity and distribution of symbiotic dinoflagellates. By comparing and contrasting coral–algal symbioses from isolated regions with differing environmental conditions, we may assess the potential of coral communities to respond to significant changes in climate.

Location Indian Ocean.

Methods Community assemblages of obligate symbiotic invertebrates were sampled at numerous sites from two regions, the north-eastern Indian Ocean (Andaman Sea, western Thailand) and the western Indian Ocean (Zanzibar, Tanzania). Molecular genetic methods, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers, DNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping, were used to characterize the 'species' diversity and evolutionary relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). Host–symbiont specificity, geographic isolation and local and regional environmental factors were evaluated in terms of their importance in governing the distribution and prevalence of certain symbiont taxa.

Results Host-generalist symbionts (C3u and D1-4, formerly D1a now designated Symbiodinium trenchi) frequently occurred alone and sometimes together in hosts with horizontal modes of symbiont acquisition. However, the majority of Symbiodinium diversity consisted of apparently host-specific 'species'. Clade C Symbiodinium were diverse and dominated host assemblages from sites sampled in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern analogous to symbiont communities on the Great Barrier Reef with similar environmental conditions. Clade D Symbiodinium were diverse and occurred frequently in hosts from the north-eastern Indian Ocean, especially at inshore locations, where temperatures are warmer, water turbidity is high and large tidal exchanges commonly expose coral populations to aerial desiccation.

Main conclusions Regional and local differences in cnidarian–algal combinations indicate that these symbioses are ecologically and evolutionarily responsive and can thrive under various environmental conditions. The high temperatures and turbid conditions of the north-eastern Indian Ocean partly explain the ecological success of Clade D Symbiodinium relative to Clade C. Phylogenetic, ecological and population genetic data further indicate that Clade D has undergone an adaptive radiation, especially in regions around Southeast Asia, during the Pleistocene.
Keyword Adaptive radiation
Andaman Sea
Dinoflagellate endosymbionts
Great Barrier Reef
Indian Ocean
Reef corals
Symbiodinium
Zanzibar
GREAT-BARRIER-REEF
CLADE-D SYMBIODINIUM
CENTRAL INDIAN-OCEAN
CLIMATE-CHANGE
BLEACHING EVENT
SCLERACTINIAN CORALS
EASTERN PACIFIC
DINOFLAGELLATE SYMBIONTS
ALGAL ENDOSYMBIONTS
THERMAL TOLERANCE
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2011 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
Centre for Marine Studies Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 124 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Sun, 09 May 2010, 00:03:50 EST