Occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines in wastewater treatment plants.

Krauss, Martin, Longrée, Philipp, Dorusch, Falk, Ort, Christoph and Hollender, Juliane (2009) Occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines in wastewater treatment plants.. Water Research, 43 17: 4381-4391. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.06.048

Author Krauss, Martin
Longrée, Philipp
Dorusch, Falk
Ort, Christoph
Hollender, Juliane
Title Occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines in wastewater treatment plants.
Journal name Water Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0043-1354
Publication date 2009-06
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2009.06.048
Volume 43
Issue 17
Start page 4381
End page 4391
Total pages 11
Editor David Dixon
Jean-Claude Block
Mogens Henze
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
Abstract The presence of nitrosamines in wastewater might pose a risk to water resources even in countries where chlorination or chloramination are hardly used for water disinfection. We studied the variation of concentrations and removal efficiencies of eight N-nitrosamines among 21 full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Switzerland and temporal variations at one of these plants. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was the predominant compound in STP primary effluents with median concentrations in the range of 5-20 ng/L, but peak concentrations up to 1 microg/L. N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was abundant in all plants at concentrations of 5-30 ng/L, other nitrosamines occurred at a lower number of plants at similar levels. From concentrations in urine samples and domestic wastewater we estimated that human excretion accounted for levels of <5 ng/L of NDMA and <1 ng/L of the other nitrosamines in municipal wastewater, additional domestic sources for <5 ng/L of NMOR. Levels above this domestic background are probably caused by industrial or commercial discharges, which results in highly variable concentrations in sewage. Aqueous removal efficiencies in activated sludge treatment were in general above 40% for NMOR and above 60% for the other nitrosamines, but could be lower if concentrations were below 8-15 ng/L in primary effluent. We hypothesize that substrate competition in the cometabolic degradation explains the occurrence of such threshold concentrations. An additional sand filtration step resulted in a further removal of nitrosamines from secondary effluents even at low concentrations. Concentrations released to surface waters were largely below 10 ng/L, suggesting a low impact on Swiss water resources and drinking water generation considering the generally high environmental dilution and possible degradation. However, local impacts in case a larger fraction of wastewater is present cannot be ruled out.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
Advanced Water Management Centre Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 65 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 20 Apr 2010, 12:10:33 EST by Ana Esposo on behalf of Advanced Water Management Centre