Determining the fraction of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater originating from a hospital

Ort, Christoph, Lawrence, Michael G., Reungoat, Julien, Eaglesham, Geoff, Carter, Steve and Keller, Jurg (2010) Determining the fraction of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater originating from a hospital. Water Research, 44 2: 605-615. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.002

Author Ort, Christoph
Lawrence, Michael G.
Reungoat, Julien
Eaglesham, Geoff
Carter, Steve
Keller, Jurg
Title Determining the fraction of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater originating from a hospital
Journal name Water Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0043-1354
Publication date 2010-01
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.002
Volume 44
Issue 2
Start page 605
End page 615
Total pages 11
Editor Mogens Henze
David Dixon
Jean-Claude Block
Place of publication Oxford , U.K.
Publisher IWA Publishing
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Abstract Pharmaceutical residues in water are frequently analysed and discussed in connection with sewage treatment, ecotoxicity and, natural and drinking water quality. Among different localities hospitals are suspected, or implied, to be a major and highly variable source of pharmaceuticals that substantially contribute to the total wastewater load. In this study, the contribution of pharmaceuticals from a hospital to a sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 45,000 inhabitants was evaluated. Approximately 200 hospital beds result in a hospital bed density of 4.4 beds per 1000 inhabitants, which is a typical value for developed world countries. Prior to sampling, a sound systems analysis was performed, and a sophisticated continuous flow-proportional sampling regime was applied. Hence, overall experimental uncertainty was reduced to a minimum, and measurements provide clear evidence that, for 28 of 59 investigated substances, over 85% of the pharmaceutical residue loads do not originate from the hospital when applying a conservative error estimation. Only for 2 substances, trimethoprim (18%) and roxithromycin (56%), was the maximum observed contribution of the hospital >15%. On average, the contribution of the hospital for the compounds detected in both, hospital effluent and sewage treatment plant influent was small and fairly constant. Five compounds were only detected in hospital wastewater, and 24 neither in the hospital wastewater nor in the total wastewater at the influent of the STP. For these compounds no experimental contribution could be calculated. For the compounds where audit data for both the national consumption and the specific hospital under investigation were available, a prediction of the fraction of pharmaceuticals originating from the hospital was performed. Three quarters of the compounds, classified with the existing audit data, were in the same “hospital contribution category” as determined by measurements. For most of the other compounds, plausible reasons could be identified to explain the observed deviations.
Keyword Experimental design
Audit data
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Received 14 May 2009; revised 21 July 2009; accepted 1 August 2009. Available online 5 August 2009.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
Advanced Water Management Centre Publications
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Created: Wed, 07 Apr 2010, 13:03:06 EST by Hong Lee on behalf of Advanced Water Management Centre