Smoking and Illicit Drug Use Associations With Early Versus Delayed Reproduction: Findings in a Young Adult Cohort of Australian Twins

Mary Waldron, , , ,, ,, Andrew C. Heath, Michael T. Lynskey, Elliot C. Nelson, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Pamela A.F. Madden and Nicholas G. Martin (2009) Smoking and Illicit Drug Use Associations With Early Versus Delayed Reproduction: Findings in a Young Adult Cohort of Australian Twins. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70 5: 786-796.


Author Mary Waldron, , , ,, ,
Andrew C. Heath
Michael T. Lynskey
Elliot C. Nelson
Kathleen K. Bucholz
Pamela A.F. Madden
Nicholas G. Martin
Title Smoking and Illicit Drug Use Associations With Early Versus Delayed Reproduction: Findings in a Young Adult Cohort of Australian Twins
Formatted title
Smoking and Illicit Drug Use Associations With Early Versus Delayed Reproduction: Findings in a Young Adult Cohort of Australian Twins
Journal name Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1937-1888
Publication date 2009-09
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
Volume 70
Issue 5
Start page 786
End page 796
Total pages 11
Editor Marc A Schuckit
Place of publication United States
Publisher Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
Abstract Objective: This article examines relationships between reproductive onset and lifetime history of smoking, regular smoking, and nicotine dependence, and cannabis and other illicit drug use. Method: Data were drawn from a young adult cohort of 3,386 female and 2,751 male Australian twins born between 1964 and 1971. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models predicting age at first childbirth from history of substance use or disorder separately by substance class. Other substance use or disorder, including alcohol dependence, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, history of psychopathology, and family and childhood risks, were included as control variables in adjusted models. Results: Regular smoking and nicotine dependence were associated with earlier reproduction, with pronounced effects for women. For women, use of cannabis was associated with early reproduction before age 20, and with delayed reproduction among women who have not reproduced by age 20 or 25. Adjustment for control variables only partially explained these associations. Conclusions: Consistent with research linking adolescent use with sexual risk taking predictive of early childbearing, regular smokers and nicotine-dependent individuals show earlier reproductive onset. In contrast, delays in childbearing associated with use of cannabis are consistent with impairments in reproductive ability and/or opportunities for reproduction. Continued research on risks both upstream and downstream of substance-use initiation and onset of substance-use disorder is needed for causal mechanisms to be fully understood.
Formatted abstract
Objective: This article examines relationships between reproductive onset and lifetime history of smoking, regular smoking, and nicotine dependence, and cannabis and other illicit drug use. Method: Data were drawn from a young adult cohort of 3,386 female and 2,751 male Australian twins born between 1964 and 1971. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models predicting age at first childbirth from history of substance use or disorder separately by substance class. Other substance use or disorder, including alcohol dependence, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, history of psychopathology, and family and childhood risks, were included as control variables in adjusted models. Results: Regular smoking and nicotine dependence were associated with earlier reproduction, with pronounced effects for women. For women, use of cannabis was associated with early reproduction before age 20, and with delayed reproduction among women who have not reproduced by age 20 or 25. Adjustment for control variables only partially explained these associations. Conclusions: Consistent with research linking adolescent use with sexual risk taking predictive of early childbearing, regular smokers and nicotine-dependent individuals show earlier reproductive onset. In contrast, delays in childbearing associated with use of cannabis are consistent with impairments in reproductive ability and/or opportunities for reproduction. Continued research on risks both upstream and downstream of substance-use initiation and onset of substance-use disorder is needed for causal mechanisms to be fully understood.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 2 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus Article
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Mon, 29 Mar 2010, 11:01:13 EST by Amanda Jones on behalf of Medicine - Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital