Biogenic amines in fish: Roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation - A review

Al Bulushi, I., Poole, S., Deeth, H.C. and Dykes, G.A. (2009) Biogenic amines in fish: Roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation - A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49 4: 369-377. doi:10.1080/10408390812067514

Author Al Bulushi, I.
Poole, S.
Deeth, H.C.
Dykes, G.A.
Title Biogenic amines in fish: Roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation - A review
Journal name Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1040-8398
Publication date 2009
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1080/10408390812067514
Volume 49
Issue 4
Start page 369
End page 377
Total pages 9
Editor Fergus M Clydesdal
Place of publication United States
Publisher Taylor & Francis Inc
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
860103 Carcass Meat (incl. Fish and Seafood)
090899 Food Sciences not elsewhere classified
Abstract Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Putrescine and cadaverine have been suggested to potentiate histamine toxicity. With respect to spoilage on the other hand, only cadaverine has been found to be a useful index of the initial stage of fish decomposition. The relationship between biogenic amines, sensory evaluation, and trimethylamine during spoilage are influenced by bacterial composition and free amino acid content. A mesophilic bacterial count of log 6-7 cfu/g has been found to be associated with 5 mg histamine/100 g fish, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum allowable histamine level. In vitro studies have shown the involvement of cadaverine and putrescine in the formation of nitrosamines, nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), respectively. In addition, impure salt, high temperature, and low pH enhance nitrosamine formation, whereas pure sodium chloride inhibits their formation. Understanding the relationships between biogenic amines and their involvement in the formation of nitrosamines could explain the mechanism of scombroid poisoning and assure the safety of many fish products.
Keyword biogenic amines
scombroid poisoning
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 45 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Fri, 26 Mar 2010, 11:39:53 EST by Kaye Hunt on behalf of School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences