Divergent selection and heterogenous genomic divergence

Nosil, Patrik, Funk, Daniel J. and Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel (2009) Divergent selection and heterogenous genomic divergence. Molecular Ecology, 18 3: 375-402. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03946.x


Author Nosil, Patrik
Funk, Daniel J.
Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel
Title Divergent selection and heterogenous genomic divergence
Journal name Molecular Ecology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0962-1083
1365-294X
Publication date 2009-02
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03946.x
Volume 18
Issue 3
Start page 375
End page 402
Total pages 28
Editor Loren Rieseberg
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject 0603 Evolutionary Biology
0602 Ecology
060411 Population, Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics
960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified
Formatted abstract
Levels of genetic differentiation between populations can be highly variable across the genome, with divergent selection contributing to such heterogeneous genomic divergence. For example, loci under divergent selection and those tightly physically linked to them may exhibit stronger differentiation than neutral regions with weak or no linkage to such loci. Divergent selection can also increase genome-wide neutral differentiation by reducing gene flow (e.g. by causing ecological speciation), thus promoting divergence via the stochastic effects of genetic drift. These consequences of divergent selection are being reported in recently accumulating studies that identify: (i) 'outlier loci' with higher levels of divergence than expected under neutrality, and (ii) a positive association between the degree of adaptive phenotypic divergence and levels of molecular genetic differentiation across population pairs ['isolation by adaptation' (IBA)]. The latter pattern arises because as adaptive divergence increases, gene flow is reduced (thereby promoting drift) and genetic hitchhiking increased. Here, we review and integrate these previously disconnected concepts and literatures. We find that studies generally report 5–10% of loci to be outliers. These selected regions were often dispersed across the genome, commonly exhibited replicated divergence across different population pairs, and could sometimes be associated with specific ecological variables. IBA was not infrequently observed, even at neutral loci putatively unlinked to those under divergent selection. Overall, we conclude that divergent selection makes diverse contributions to heterogeneous genomic divergence. Nonetheless, the number, size, and distribution of genomic regions affected by selection varied substantially among studies, leading us to discuss the potential role of divergent selection in the growth of regions of differentiation (i.e. genomic islands of divergence), a topic in need of future investigation.
Keyword Chromosomal inversions
Ecological genetics
F ST
Introgression
Neutral gene flow
Outlier loci
Population genomics
QTL mapping
Speciation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article first published online: 7 January 2009

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
Ecology Centre Publications
 
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Created: Thu, 11 Mar 2010, 12:03:44 EST by Laura McTaggart on behalf of School of Biological Sciences