Chronic improvement of amino acid nutrition stimulates initiation of global messenger ribonucleic acid translation in tissues of sheep without affecting protein elongation

Connors, M. T., Poppi, D. P. and Cant, J. P. (2010) Chronic improvement of amino acid nutrition stimulates initiation of global messenger ribonucleic acid translation in tissues of sheep without affecting protein elongation. Journal of Animal Science, 88 2: 689-696. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-1901


Author Connors, M. T.
Poppi, D. P.
Cant, J. P.
Title Chronic improvement of amino acid nutrition stimulates initiation of global messenger ribonucleic acid translation in tissues of sheep without affecting protein elongation
Journal name Journal of Animal Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0021-8812
Publication date 2010-02-01
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2527/jas.2009-1901
Volume 88
Issue 2
Start page 689
End page 696
Total pages 8
Editor S. A. Zinn
Place of publication United States
Publisher American Society of Animal Science
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
070204 Animal Nutrition
830310 Sheep - Meat
830301 Beef Cattle
Formatted abstract
Initiation of mRNA translation and elongation of the polypeptide chain are 2 regulated processes responsible for the short-term postprandial acceleration of protein synthesis in animal tissues. It is known that a chronic increase in the absorptive supply of AA stimulates protein synthesis in ruminant animals, but effects on translation initiation and elongation are unknown. To determine whether initiation or elongation phases of global mRNA translation are affected by chronic elevation of AA supply, 24 ewe lambs of 25.9 ± 2.5 kg of BW were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups of 6 lambs each. All lambs received a basal diet of barley and hay at 1.2 times maintenance ME intake. Treatments were an intravenous (i.v.) saline infusion as a control, i.v. infusion of 6 essential AA (EAA; Arg, Lys, His, Thr, Met, Cys) for 10 d, i.v. infusion of the same EAA excluding Met and Cys (EAA-SAA) for 10 d, and an oral drench of fishmeal twice daily for 17 d. Fishmeal supplementation supplied an extra 719 mg of N•kg–0.75•d–1 and N retention was increased 519 mg•kg–0.75•d–1 over the control. The EAA treatment supplied an extra 343 mg of N•kg–0.75•d–1 directly into the blood, and N balance was increased by 268 mg•kg–0.75•d–1. Deletion of Met plus Cys from EAA had no effect on N balance. The results indicate that Met plus Cys did not limit body protein gain on the basal diet alone or the basal diet plus 6 AA. Protein fractional synthesis rates in liver, duodenum, skin, rumen, semimembranosus, and LM were measured by a flooding dose procedure using L-[ring-2,6-3H]-Phe. Ribosome transit times were estimated from the ratio of nascent to total protein-bound radioactivities. Fishmeal and EAA treatments had no effect on RNA, DNA, or protein contents of tissues, but fractional synthesis rate, translational efficiency, and concentrations of active ribosomes were consistently elevated. Ribosome transit time was not affected by long-term AA supply. We conclude that the chronic stimulation of protein synthesis by long-term i.v. infusion of EAA or supplementation with an undegradable protein source is brought about by an improvement in the rate of initiation of mRNA translation with no change in the rate of polypeptide chain elongation.
Keyword Amino acid
Fishmeal
Protein synthesis
Ribosome transit time
Sheep
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
 
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Created: Sun, 21 Feb 2010, 00:05:05 EST