The aim of this paper is to present a review of the literature on the key issues impacting on the decisions, by men who have sex with men, to use, or not use, condoms for anal intercourse. 250 publications were accessed, reviewed, read and sorted; 200 of these were research based and 50 were opinion pieces of work. In addition, 240 of the 250 had undergone a peer review process. The review presented here shows that men who have sex with men communities are a heterogeneous group and their reasons for engaging in unprotected anal intercourse are inter-related and diverse. Six main themes related to sexual risk behaviour and condom use were identified: the availability of HIV treatments, physical issues, psychosocial issues, intentional practices, internet and substance use. Nurses need to understand these factors if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of HIV infection.