THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF WASTEWATER FROM ETHANOL DISTILLATION (SPENT WASH/ VINASSE) AS A SOIL AMELIORANT (ORGANIC-CLAY NUTRIENTS)

Wannipa Soda (2009). THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF WASTEWATER FROM ETHANOL DISTILLATION (SPENT WASH/ VINASSE) AS A SOIL AMELIORANT (ORGANIC-CLAY NUTRIENTS) MPhil Thesis, School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland.

       
Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
s41096499_MPhil_Abstract.pdf s41096499_MPhil_Abstract.pdf Click to show the corresponding preview/stream application/pdf 16.49KB 2
s41096499_MPhil_totalthesis.pdf Final Thesis Lodgement Click to show the corresponding preview/stream application/pdf 964.47KB 11
Author Wannipa Soda
Thesis Title THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF WASTEWATER FROM ETHANOL DISTILLATION (SPENT WASH/ VINASSE) AS A SOIL AMELIORANT (ORGANIC-CLAY NUTRIENTS)
School, Centre or Institute School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2009-08
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Supervisor Prof. Neal Menzies
Dr. Philip Moody
Total pages 125
Total colour pages 10 pages in colour
Total black and white pages 115 pages in black and white
Subjects 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
Abstract/Summary Abstract The chemical characteristics of spent wash, an effluent from the distillation of ethanol from molasses, can vary, depending on the initial feed stock and the operations of the factory. Spent wash from Australia contained large quantities of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), K, N and Cl with moderate to low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, and S, and small amounts of trace elements (Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn). Spent wash from Thailand was obtained from whisky distillation and generally had similar chemical attributes to the spent wash from ethanol production, although the Zn concentration was much higher (399-974 mg Zn L-1). Large differences in EC and pH were found between Australian (pH: 4.08-4.49; EC: 40.4-42.2 dS m-1) and Thai spent wash (pH: 7.86-9.20; EC: 11.3-82.4 dS m-1). However, the high concentration of K in spent wash from both manufacturing processes indicates the unique chemical characteristic of wastewater produced from molasses-based distillation. While chemical characterisations of spent wash have shown its potential value as a fertilizer, its utility needs to be more practical than by direct application. This is due to its dilute nature, associated with the presence of organic carbon (OC) and nutrients in soluble form, thus making direct application susceptible to leaching losses of nutrients, especially in soils of low cation exchange capacity (CEC). It was hypothesized that capturing OC and nutrients on a high activity exchanger would overcome this problem. Since the charge on organic components in spent wash is important to the capturing process, pH manipulation is one of the major factors affecting the efficiency of this capture. The study of the influence of pH on development of charge on organic components in spent wash was undertaken using potentiometric titration. The potentiometric titration, and derived pH buffer curve, showed that the organic components in spent wash comprised a wide range of ionizable organic functional groups behaving like a mix of weak acids. While the inflection point (s) could not be obtained from the potentriometric titration, the absorbance of spent wash in the UV waveband (250 to 400 nm) confirmed the presence of phenolic groups in spent wash. The charge on organic components in spent wash was strongly pH dependent, and highest in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. The manipulation of pH and salt concentration (EC) was shown to have an effect on flocculation/dispersion and it is inferred that this was due to changes in the molecular arrangement of organic components in spent wash. A coiled configuration is suggested at acidic pH, whereas a linear flexible configuration and macromolecular structure tending to occur at neutral and alkaline pH respectively. Ca-saturated bentonite, originally sourced from Mantuan Downs, Central Queensland, was used in an investigation of the capture of OC and nutrients from Sarina spent wash at different pH values (4.5, 6.0, 8.0). This study demonstrated that manipulation of pH and electrolyte concentration had a small effect on adsorption of OC by the clay, probably the result of effects on the charge characteristics of both clay mineral surfaces and organic molecules and also on molecular sizes of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). The highest absorption of OC was only 28% for dewatered spent wash, suggesting Ca-saturated bentonite may not be a strong sorbent for DOM from a wastewater of high EC and which contains high concentration of DOC of the composition found in spent wash. The study of the adsorption of K by bentonite in a pure inorganic system (without DOM) indicated sufficiently high concentrations of K can compete with divalent Ca2+ for exchange sites on the clay surface. The adsorption of K in an organic system (the DOM component in spent wash) showed that DOM had a positive influence on adsorption of inorganic ions (e.g. K+). Characterisation of the spent wash/ clay mixture demonstrated its potential to be used as a soil ameliorant on the basis of the large quantity of OC and nutrients it contained (especially N and K). Wet and dry organic clays were produced and assessed as ameliorants in a glasshouse trial using forage oat (Avena sativa var. Coolobah) as test species. This pot study indicated a positive influence of application of either wet or dry organic clay on crop biomass at the high application rate (equivalent to 40 tonnes ha-1). The high proportional K recovery from this high application rate application suggests that organic clays can be used as K fertilizer. The crop nutrient uptake data also indicated its use as a source of S and Mn.
Keyword Keywords wastewater, spent wash, vinasse, ethanol distillation, dissolved organic molecule (DOM), potassium (K), adsorption of organic matter (OM) on clay, bentonite, organic clay, soil ameliorant.
Additional Notes The following pages should be printed in colour: 37, 40, 52-53, 71-73, 104, 106-107. The following page should be printed in landscape: 10-13, 21, 24-25, 27, 92, 97.

 
Citation counts: Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 701 Abstract Views, 13 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Mon, 01 Feb 2010, 11:14:59 EST by Ms Wannipa Soda on behalf of Library - Information Access Service