A study of one-dimensional quantum gases

Andrew Sykes (2010). A study of one-dimensional quantum gases PhD Thesis, School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland.

       
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Author Andrew Sykes
Thesis Title A study of one-dimensional quantum gases
School, Centre or Institute School of Mathematics and Physics
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2010-03
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Assoc. Prof. Matthew Davis
Dr. Karen Kheruntsyan
Total pages 125
Total colour pages 58
Total black and white pages 67
Subjects 02 Physical Sciences
Abstract/Summary In this thesis we study the physics of quantum many-body systems confined to one-dimensional geometries. The work was motivated by the recent success of experimentalists in developing atom traps, capable of restricting the motion of the individual atoms to a single spatial dimension. Specifically, we look at aspects of the one-dimensional Bose gas including; excitation spectrum, correlation functions, and dynamical behaviour. In Chapter \ref{ch:excitation1D} we consider the Lieb-Liniger model of interacting bosons in one-dimension. We numerically solve the equations arising from the Bethe ansatz solution for the exact many-body wave function in a finite-size system of up to twenty particles for attractive interactions. We discuss novel features of the solutions, including deviations from the well-known string solutions due to finite size effects. We present excited state string solutions in the limit of strong interactions and discuss their physical interpretation, as well as the characteristics of the quantum phase transition that occurs as a function of interaction strength in the mean-field limit. Our results are compared to those obtained via exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in a truncated basis. In Chapter \ref{ch:g2} we analytically calculate the spatial nonlocal pair correlation function for an interacting uniform one dimensional Bose gas at finite temperature and propose an experimental method to measure nonlocal correlations. Our results span six different physical realms, including the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. We show explicitly that the characteristic correlation lengths are given by one of four length scales: the thermal de Broglie wavelength, the mean interparticle separation, the healing length, or the phase coherence length. In all regimes, we identify the profound role of interactions and find that under certain conditions the pair correlation may develop a global maximum at a finite interparticle separation due to the competition between repulsive interactions and thermal effects. In Chapter \ref{ch:casimirdrag} we study the drag force below the critical velocity for obstacles moving in a superfluid. The absence of drag is well established in the context of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory. We calculate the next order correction due to quantum and thermal fluctuations and find a non-zero force acting on a delta-function impurity moving through a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate at all subcritical velocities and at all temperatures. The force occurs due to an imbalance in the Doppler shifts of reflected quantum fluctuations from either side of the impurity. Our calculation is based on a consistent extension of Bogoliubov theory to second order in the interaction strength, and finds new analytic solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a gray soliton. In Chapter \ref{ch:solitons} we study the effect of quantum noise on the stability of a soliton. We find the soliton solutions exactly define the reflectionless potentials of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. This results in complete stability of the solitons in a purely one dimensional system. We look at the modifications to the density profile of a black soliton due to quantum fluctuations.
Keyword Many-body quantum theory, one-dimensional, ultra-cold atoms, Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, solitons
Additional Notes Corrected thesis. Pages to print in colour, 1, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 39, 40, 50-61, 64-68, 69-74, 76, 79, 85, 86, 87, 95-113, 116, 118, 121

 
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