American Association for the Advancement of Science
In cases where uninvolved bystanders pay to punish defectors, this behavior has typically been interpreted in terms of group-level rather than individual-level benefits. Male cleaner fish, Labroides dimidiatus, punish their female partner if she cheats while inspecting model clients. Punishment promotes female cooperation and thereby yields direct foraging benefits to the male. Thus, third-party punishment can evolve via self-serving tendencies in a nonhuman species, and this finding may shed light on the evolutionary dynamics of more complex behavior in other animal species, including humans.
Published under Brevia: For original research, the common thread is that the work should reveal novel concepts of broad importance to the scientific community. Categories of papers include Research Articles of up to approximately 4,500 words; Reports of up to 2,500 words; and Brevia, short contributions of about 800 words. http://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/contribinfo/faq/index.xhtml