Bently, Lionel, Sherman, Brad and Hubicki, Stephen (2009). Patent Issues in Biotechnology. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (pp. 1-5) Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0005189.pub2
In both European and US law, biotechnological products may be patented if they fulfil the normal requirements of patent law that they are novel, nonobvious and useful for industry. In practice this means that biological molecules, including genes, that have been isolated from nature and are susceptible of industrial application are capable of protection, as are processes of isolating and purifying biological molecules.