Elaidic and linoleic acids were administered at doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg i.p. every second day for 4 weeks t o rats fed a fat-free diet. The fatty acids had only a slight effect on the weight gain of the animals. The amount of microsomal protein was slightly decreased with the higher dose of linoleic acid. The higher dose level of both fatty acids decreased the microsomal phospholipid content. The relative amounts of microsomal phospholipid fatty acids were also altered due to fatty acid administration. The activity of microsomal NADPH cytochrome c reductase and microsomal cytochrome P-450 contents were decreased by the higher dose of linoleic acid. The hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and p-nitroanisole O-demethylase activities decreased in fatty acid-treated rats. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was also lowered after the fatty acid administration. The results suggest that fatty acid-induced changes in the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes may be due to the microenvironment changes of membrane-bound enzymes.