Pea has its tendrils in branching discoveries spanning a century from auxin to strigolactones

Beveridge, CA, Dun, EA and Rameau, C (2009) Pea has its tendrils in branching discoveries spanning a century from auxin to strigolactones. Plant Physiology, 151 3: 985-990. doi:10.1104/pp.109.143909


Author Beveridge, CA
Dun, EA
Rameau, C
Title Pea has its tendrils in branching discoveries spanning a century from auxin to strigolactones
Journal name Plant Physiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0032-0889
Publication date 2009-11
Year available 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1104/pp.109.143909
Volume 151
Issue 3
Start page 985
End page 990
Total pages 6
Editor Ort, D.R.
Place of publication United States
Publisher American Society of Plant Biologists
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
829999 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products not elsewhere classified
060705 Plant Physiology
Formatted abstract
Shoot branching was one of the first developmental
processes found to be controlled by plant hormones
including auxin and cytokinin (Dun et al., 2009). Later,
a novel branching hormone was proposed (Fig. 1),
and recently strigolactones were discovered as this
hormone (Gomez-Roldan et al., 2008; Umehara et al.,
2008). In this Update, we focus on the important
contributions to this discovery made by legumes,
particularly garden pea (Pisum sativum; Fig. 1). Legumes
are useful for shoot-branching research because
of several features that facilitate studies of axillary
buds and long-distance signaling. They have long
internodes separating axillary buds and the shoot
tip, are easy to graft, are amenable to root xylem-sap
extraction, and their axillary buds are accessible for
hormone applications, growth measurements, and
other related analyses. Additionally, for many pea
varieties, most axillary buds are dormant but have the
potential for release throughout development. Some of
these traits, in addition to the availability of mutants,
made working with pea and other legumes attractive
to the early plant physiologists, and remain relevant
today.
Early studies of shoot branching focused on decapitation-
induced bud outgrowth, comparing branched
decapitated plants with nonbranched control plants
(Fig. 1). The term apical dominance was coined because
decapitation and auxin application studies provided
evidence that auxin, produced in the shoot tip,
was involved in the inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth
at nodes below (Cline, 1991). Studies of axillary
bud release on different shoots of plants with two
shoots (e.g. Snow, 1929; Fig. 2A) suggested the existence
of an inhibitory signal that moves upward in the
shoot and is controlled by auxin supplied from the
shoot tip.
Like any area of modern plant biology, the investigation
of mutants has been an essential component of
shoot-branching studies. In pea, several increased
branching mutants are named ramosus (rms), meaning
with many branches. Generated through various mutagenesis
programs, these mutants began to be characterized
in the 1990s (Fig. 1; for review, see Beveridge,
2000).
Keyword Bud Outgrowth
Mutational Analysis
Apical Dominance
RMS1mutant
shoot
Inhibition
Arabidopsis
Cytokinin
Rice
Decapitation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

 
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Created: Sun, 22 Nov 2009, 00:01:20 EST