What motivates the motivators? The development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ)

Kristy Mclean (2009). What motivates the motivators? The development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ) PhD Thesis, School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland.

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Author Kristy Mclean
Thesis Title What motivates the motivators? The development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ)
School, Centre or Institute School of Human Movement Studies
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2009-08
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Dr. Cliff Mallett
Dr. Peter Newcombe
Total pages 238
Total colour pages 4
Total black and white pages 234
Subjects 11 Medical and Health Sciences
Abstract/Summary Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), the motivation of sports coaches and the development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ) are the subject of this thesis. Motivation contributes to the way in which people think, feel, and act, and is therefore a central issue in the study of psychology (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). The motivational sequence (Vallerand, 1997) suggests that coaches’ motivations influence their behaviours, which subsequently have an effect on their athletes’ perceptions of the motivational climate. In the sport domain, the coach-athlete relationship is one of the most important influences on athletes’ motivation and subsequent performance (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003). Nevertheless, while there is much research concentrating on the impact of coaching behaviours on athletes’ perceptions and performance, little thought seems to have been given to the coaches’ needs themselves (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003). Following previous work with athletes (e.g., Frederick-Recascino & Schuster-Smith, 2003), the motives and motivational styles of coaches should be related to how they behave within the coaching environment (Frederick & Morrison, 1999). In other words, why coaches coach should influence how coaches coach. The present investigation was conducted to further research and understanding of coach motivation. In the pursuit of this aim, the following three studies were conducted. In Study 1, the motivation of Australian coaches was examined, with a view to informing the development of a valid measurement tool. Employing a qualitative methodology, 13 coaches from different sports and levels of competition participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis of the interview transcripts yielded four key dimensions: (a) connection with sport, (b) coach and athlete development, (c) external influences, and (d) internal motives. Overall, SDT appeared to be a useful lens for understanding the data and the existence of multiple forms of motivation were discussed. Study 2 involved the development and pilot testing of a pool of potential items for the CMQ. These items reflected each of the six forms of motivation as conceptualised in SDT, and were designed to be broad and applicable to a wide range of coaches and coaching scenarios. Coaches (N = 86) completed the extended version of the CMQ online, and were requested to respond to two open-ended questions designed to gauge the face validity and general clarity of the questionnaire content. Results suggested that motivation factors were internally consistent, however empirical and qualitative feedback suggested the adaptation of one item for conceptual clarity and the removal of a second item resulting in the CMQ-41. The psychometric properties of the CMQ were examined in Study 3. Coaches (N = 556) completed an online questionnaire package that included the CMQ and measures of psychological needs, goal orientation, and well-being. Examination using CFA produced a 22-item measure with good model fit. Further evaluation produced preliminary evidence for the scale’s validity and reliability. The implications of these results for researchers and practitioners are discussed. Directions for research concerning coach motivation, SDT, and the coach-athlete performance relationship are also highlighted.
Keyword Coaching
Self-determination theory
Scale development
Additional Notes Colour Pages: 211 220 226 229

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Created: Tue, 17 Nov 2009, 13:01:02 EST by Ms Kristy Mclean on behalf of Library - Information Access Service