Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Concentrates from Recycled Water

Arseto Yekti Bagastyo (2009). Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Concentrates from Recycled Water MPhil Thesis, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland.

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Author Arseto Yekti Bagastyo
Thesis Title Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Concentrates from Recycled Water
School, Centre or Institute School of Chemical Engineering
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2009-03
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Supervisor Dr. Damien Batstone
Prof. Jurg Keller
Total pages 168
Total colour pages 20
Total black and white pages 148
Subjects 09 Engineering
Abstract/Summary Water recycling by membrane treatment is widely accepted as a leading alternative water source. This separation process creates a concentrated stream (called concentrates), containing most of the pollutants in 10%-20% of the flow; and a treated water stream. As nitrogen is a major concern, environmental regulations have become more stringent, requiring additional treatment to meet effluent standards. Other concerns include organic contaminants and potential production of halogenated organics if disinfection of the reject was applied. One option to address the problem of dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon is advanced oxidation. This oxidation could lead to degradation of refractory organic materials, which are poorly removed in conventional treatment. This project aims to evaluate treatment extent and cost of alternatives for organic (particularly nitrogen) removal in reject water addressing the following research gaps: (i) identifying the key organic pollutants present in the concentrated stream, (ii) the effectiveness and optimisation of coagulation, ion exchange and advanced oxidation; (iii) apparent cost of the different treatment methods. The untreated reverse osmosis concentrates were collected from two treatment plants:- Luggage Point, and Bundamba, both near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The first contains more colourful of organics than the second plant. Stirred cell fractionation with ultrafiltration membranes was used to characterise the removed key pollutants, as it offers better accuracy and reproducibility compared to centrifugation fractionation. Fluorescence spectral was used to monitor and identify specific organic compounds. The largest fraction was smaller sized <1kDa. This is probably small humic substances and fulvic acids, as indicated by Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) analysis. A smaller portion of soluble microbial products (SMPs) also contributes to the concentrates. Bundamba contains large non coloured organics including organic nitrogen with elevated ammonia-N. In contrast, Luggage Point has higher colour, inorganic carbon and conductivity with less ammonia-N. Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was the most effective treatment method (high removal of organics, e.g. 55% COD of initial), followed by magnetised ion exchange (MIEX) and coagulations. For UV/H2O2 AOP, the optimal operating condition 400mg.L-1 H2O2 and 3.1kWh.m-3 energy input resulted in organics removals up to 55% with complete decolourisation. The effective reduction was found in all size ranges, preferably in >1kDa. Low inorganic carbon and salinity in Bundamba may allow better overall oxidation rates. MIEX also performed better in Bundamba with organic removals up to 43% and 80% decolourisation at the optimum resin dose of 15mL.L-1. Removal was preferential in size range of >3kDa, with more proportional percentage for decolourisation. Similarly, ferric coagulation removed a wider size range of organics. Further, ferric achieved better organic removal in Luggage Point with up to 49%. At the same molar dose (1.5mM), ferric is superior to alum, especially in Bundamba where there were less hydrophobic compounds according to EEM. Alum is poor for treatment of high organics with less coloured water. MIEX with an operational cost (chemicals and power only) of $0.14-$0.20.m-3 treated water seemed to be the most effective treatment overall. The resin achieved better results with a slightly higher cost than coagulation, and had a lower environmental impact due to reduced sludge production. AOP offers better treatment, but at a higher cost ($0.47.m-3 treated). Combined alternatives may benefit the removal effectiveness. Furthermore, more specific identification of contaminants should be investigated separately to choose appropriate treatment for priority chemicals. Another issue is further investigation of costing, including capital, and full environmental impact of treatment.
Keyword water reclamation
Reverse Osmosis Concentrates
ion exchange resin
Advanced oxidation process
Additional Notes page 62-64, 66-69, 71, 84-86, 93-95, 103-105, and 122-124 should be printed in colour. page 39, 47, 73, and 128 should be printed in landscape.

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Created: Fri, 25 Sep 2009, 10:28:52 EST by Mr Arseto Yekti Bagastyo on behalf of Library - Information Access Service