Objective: To determine maternal and fetal demographic factors which predict the risk of increasing severity of hypospadias.
Patients and methods:A population-based study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database was performed. Demographic variables of mothers and boys with hypospadias were obtained from 1980 to 2007 inclusive. Hypospadias was graded by the position of the urinary meatus as glanular, coronal, shaft, or proximal to shaft. Maternal and fetal risk factors for hypospadias severity were compared using logistic regression.
Results:The total number of male pregnancy and birth records during the study period was 130,796. The total number of cases of hypospadias was 995, yielding an incidence of 0.76%. The severity of hypospadias was graded as glanular in 428 (77.8%); coronal in 77 (14%); penile shaft in 34 (6.2%); and proximal to the penile shaft in 12 (2.2%). The severity of hypospadias was not graded in 445 cases. Low birth weight, low gestational age and maternal age were associated with increased severity of hypospadias, but only maternal age (P < 0.03) when logistic regression was performed. Limitations included self-reporting for some parameters, such as smoking, and lack of data, such as for the use of assisted reproductive technologies.
Conclusions:Advanced maternal age was associated with increased severity of hypospadias in our population.