A combined approach of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis for the transdermal delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride

Mutalik, S., Parekh, H., Davies, N. M. and Udupa, Nayanabhirama (2009) A combined approach of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis for the transdermal delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride. Drug Delivery, 16 2: 82-91.


Author Mutalik, S.
Parekh, H.
Davies, N. M.
Udupa, Nayanabhirama
Title A combined approach of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis for the transdermal delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride
Journal name Drug Delivery   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1071-7544
Publication date 2009
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1080/10717540802605053
Volume 16
Issue 2
Start page 82
End page 91
Total pages 10
Editor A. Stracher
Place of publication United States
Publisher Informa Healthcare
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject C1
111502 Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
920117 Skin and Related Disorders
Formatted abstract The effects of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis on the transdermal permeation of tizanidine hydrochloride (TIZ) across mouse skin were investigated. Parameters including drug solubility, apparent partition coefficient (APC), drug permeation, and degradation in skin were determined. Low frequency ultrasound was also applied in the presence and absence of chemical enhancers to assess whether drug permeation improved. APC values indicated that TIZ preferentially partitions into intercellular spaces and does not form a reservoir, with the drug also exhibiting good enzymatic stability in skin. Most of the enhancers studied significantly increased the permeation rate of TIZ through full thickness mouse skin in comparison with TIZ formulated in phosphate buffer. Maximum enhancement was observed for TIZ formulated as a suspension in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol containing 5% v/v citral. Sonophoresis significantly (p < 0.05) increased the cumulative amount of TIZ permeating through the skin at 15 and 30 min in comparison to passive diffusion. A synergistic effect was noted when sonophoresis was applied in the presence of chemical enhancers. The results suggest that the formulation of TIZ with an appropriate penetration enhancer may be useful in the development of a therapeutic system to deliver TIZ across the skin for a prolonged period, i.e. 24 hr. The application of ultrasound in association with chemical enhancers, such as the combination of 5% v/v citral in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol, could further serve as a non-oral and non-invasive drug delivery modality for the immediate therapeutic effect of muscle relaxants such as TIZ.
Keyword Transdermal delivery
Muscle relaxants
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2010 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Pharmacy Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 10 Jun 2009, 16:17:22 EST by Charna Kovacevic on behalf of School of Pharmacy