Toxicities of soluble Al, Cu, and La include ruptures to rhizodermal and root cortical cells of cowpea

Kopittke, Peter M., Blamey, F. Pax C. and Menzies, N. W. (2008) Toxicities of soluble Al, Cu, and La include ruptures to rhizodermal and root cortical cells of cowpea. Plant and Soil, 303 1-2: 217-227. doi:10.1007/s11104-007-9500-5


Author Kopittke, Peter M.
Blamey, F. Pax C.
Menzies, N. W.
Title Toxicities of soluble Al, Cu, and La include ruptures to rhizodermal and root cortical cells of cowpea
Journal name Plant and Soil   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0032-079X
1573-5036
Publication date 2008-02
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11104-007-9500-5
Volume 303
Issue 1-2
Start page 217
End page 227
Total pages 11
Editor Hans Lambers
Place of publication The Hague, Netherlands
Publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers
Collection year 2009
Language eng
Subject 961205 Rehabilitation of Degraded Mining Environments
070101 Agricultural Land Management
Formatted abstract
Elevated levels of many metals are toxic to plant roots, but their modes of action are not well understood. We investigated the toxicities of aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), and lanthanum (La) in solution on the growth and external morphology of 3-d-old cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) roots for periods of up to 48 h. Root elongation rate decreased by 50% at ca. 30 µM Al, 0.3 µM Cu, or 2.0 µM La, accompanied by a decrease in the distance from the root tip to the proximal lateral root. Kinks developed in some roots 2.0 ± 0.4 mm from the root apex on exposure to Al or La (but not Cu). Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that soluble Al, Cu, or La caused similar transverse ruptures to develop > 1 mm from the root apex through the breaking and separation of the rhizodermis and outer cortex from inner-layers. The metals differed, however, in the range in concentration at which they had this effect; developing in solutions containing 54 to‑600 µM Al, but only from 0.85 to 1.8 µM Cu or 2.0 to 5.5 µM La. These findings suggest that Al, Cu, and La bind to the walls of cells, causing increased cell wall rigidity and eventual cell rupturing of the rhizodermis and outer cortex in the elongating zone. We propose that this is a major toxic effect of Al, and that Cu and La also have additional toxic effects. © Springer
Keyword Aluminium
Cells
Copper
Lanthanum
Root
Toxicity mechanism
Toxicity symptoms
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
 
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Created: Thu, 16 Apr 2009, 09:35:56 EST by Emma Cushworth on behalf of Faculty Of Nat Resources, Agric & Veterinary Sc