Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy of the hip have shown that labral injuries, chondral injuries, rim lesions, synovitis and tears of the ligament teres are common causes of hip, groin and low-back pain. Hip arthroscopy is used both as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool; it has been shown to be of benefit in recent traumatic labral injury, but disappointing in the management of chronic hip pain (which may be associated with degenerative change, and chondral lesions of the acetabulum). The McConnell multimodal physiotherapy regimen is effective in treating patellofemoral pain. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture is three to five times more common in women, but neuromuscular training appears to decrease its incidence. Patellar tendon and hamstring grafts appear to be equally effective in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Articular cartilage defects remain a significant problem, and the efficacy of treatments such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is still unclear.