Turbulent air–water flows in hydraulic structures: Dynamic similarity and scale effects

Chanson, H. (2009) Turbulent air–water flows in hydraulic structures: Dynamic similarity and scale effects. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 9 2: 125-142. doi:10.1007/s10652-008-9078-3

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Author Chanson, H.
Title Turbulent air–water flows in hydraulic structures: Dynamic similarity and scale effects
Journal name Environmental Fluid Mechanics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1567-7419
Publication date 2009
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s10652-008-9078-3
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 9
Issue 2
Start page 125
End page 142
Total pages 18
Editor Benoit Cushman-Roisin
Place of publication Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher Springer - Netherlands
Collection year 2010
Language eng
Subject 090509 Water Resources Engineering
970109 Expanding Knowledge in Engineering
Abstract In hydraulic structures, free-surface aeration is commonly observed: i.e., the white waters. The air bubble entrainment may be localised (hydraulic jumps, plunging jets) or continuous along an interface (water jets, chutes). Despite recent advances, there are some basic concerns about the extrapolation of laboratory results to large size prototype structures. Herein the basic air bubble entrainment processes are reviewed and the relevant dynamic similarities are discussed. Traditionally, physical studies are conducted using a Froude similitude which implies drastically smaller laboratory Reynolds numbers than in the corresponding prototype flows. Basic dimensional analyses are developed for both singular and interfacial aeration processes. The results are discussed in the light of systematic investigations and they show that the notion of scale effects is closely linked with the selection of relevant characteristic air–water flow properties. Recent studies of local air–water flow properties highlight that turbulence levels, entrained bubble sizes and interfacial areas are improperly scaled based upon a Froude similitude even in large-size models operating with the so defined Reynolds numbers up to 5 E+5. In laboratory models, the dimensionless turbulence levels, air–water interfacial areas and mass transfer rates are drastically underestimated.
Keyword Air-water flows
Air bubble entrainment
Hydraulic engineering
Dynamic similarity
Scale effects
Froude similitude
Plunging jets
Hydraulic jumps
Spillway chutes
Stepped spillways
High-velocity water jets
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Additional Notes The full bibliographic details are: CHANSON, H. (2009). "Turbulent Air-water Flows in Hydraulic Structures: Dynamic Similarity and Scale Effects." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 125-142 (DOI: 10.1007/s10652-008-9078-3) (ISSN 1567-7419 [Print] 1573-1510 [Online]).

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Civil Engineering Publications
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Created: Thu, 26 Mar 2009, 09:55:57 EST by Hubert Chanson on behalf of School of Civil Engineering