Facial Soft Tissue Depths in Craniofacial Identification (Part I): An Analytical Review of the Published Adult Data

Stephan, Carl N. and Simpson, Ellie K. (2008) Facial Soft Tissue Depths in Craniofacial Identification (Part I): An Analytical Review of the Published Adult Data. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53 6: 1257-1272. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00852.x


Author Stephan, Carl N.
Simpson, Ellie K.
Title Facial Soft Tissue Depths in Craniofacial Identification (Part I): An Analytical Review of the Published Adult Data
Journal name Journal of Forensic Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-1198
1556-4029
Publication date 2008
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00852.x
Volume 53
Issue 6
Start page 1257
End page 1272
Total pages 16
Editor M. A. Peat
Place of publication United States
Publisher Blackwell Publishing
Collection year 2009
Language eng
Subject C1

069901 Forensic Biology
860802 Human Diagnostics
Abstract With the ever increasing production of average soft tissue depth studies, data are becoming increasingly complex, less standardized, and more unwieldy. So far, no overarching review has been attempted to determine: the validity of continued data collection; the usefulness of the existing data subcategorizations; or if a synthesis is possible to produce a manageable soft tissue depth library. While a principal components analysis would provide the best foundation for such an assessment, this type of investigation is not currently possible because of a lack of easily accessible raw data (first, many studies are narrow; second, raw data are infrequently published and/or stored and are not always shared by some authors). This paper provides an alternate means of investigation using an hierarchical approach to review and compare the effects of single variables on published mean values for adults whilst acknowledging measurement errors and within-group variation. The results revealed: (i) no clear secular trends at frequently investigated landmarks; (ii) wide variation in soft tissue depth measures between different measurement techniques irrespective of whether living persons or cadavers were considered; (iii) no clear clustering of non-Caucasoid data far from the Caucasoid means; and (iv) minor differences between males and females. Consequently, the data were pooled across studies using weighted means and standard deviations to cancel out random and opposing study-specific errors, and to produce a single soft tissue depth table with increased sample sizes (e.g., 6786 individuals at pogonion
Keyword forensic science
soft tissue thickness
facial approximation
facial reproduction
facial reconstruction
superimposition
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

 
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Created: Wed, 18 Mar 2009, 12:03:26 EST