Monitoring long term changes in test and competitive performance in elite swimmers

Anderson, M. E., Hopkins, W. G., Roberts, A. D. and Pyne, D. B. (2003) Monitoring long term changes in test and competitive performance in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35 5 Supp.1: s36-s36.

Author Anderson, M. E.
Hopkins, W. G.
Roberts, A. D.
Pyne, D. B.
Title Monitoring long term changes in test and competitive performance in elite swimmers
Journal name Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0195-9131
Publication date 2003-05
Sub-type Article (original research)
Volume 35
Issue 5 Supp.1
Start page s36
End page s36
Total pages 1
Place of publication Maryland, MO, United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Language eng
Subject 110602 Exercise Physiology
Formatted abstract
To evaluate the utility of an incremental swimming test for monitoring seasonal changes in performance of elite swimmers.
Olympic representative 100- to 400-m swimmers (10 males, 9 females) performed a 7 × 200-m incremental swimming step test several times throughout each 6-month season during 1998–2002. Each season concluded with a national or international competition. Log transformation and repeated measures mixed linear modeling were used to derive estimates of percent change in the mean and within-swimmer coefficient of variation (CV) for swim times between seasons and for the following test measures between phases and seasons: speed, stroke rate, stroke count and heart rate at lactate threshold; speed for the maximal (last) 200-m step; and maximal lactate. Change in competition time was modeled as a linear function of change in each of the step-test measures between season. We also determined the 3-day retest typical error for the test measures in a reliability study of 12 of the swimmers.
Test measures directly related to swimming performance showed cyclical improvement (mean ~2%) from early through to taper phases within each season, and within-swimmer variation was of similar magnitude. These changes can be monitored confidently in individuals, because the typical error of the test measures was substantially smaller (e.g. lactate-threshold speed, 0.7%; maximal speed 0.6%). Competition times improved slightly each season (0.2%) against a within-swimmer variation of 1.0% between competitions, but typical (1 × CV) changes in test measures between seasons predicted worthwhile changes in competition time (> 0.4%) only for tests in the taper and only for speed (0.8%) and stroke rate (0.6%) at lactate threshold and for maximum lactate (0.5%).
The step test can track changes in a swimmer's performance during a season, but it appears to be useful for predicting competitive performance only during the taper.
Q-Index Code CX
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences Publications
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