Characterisation and Functional Analysis of Osteal Macrophages: Resident Tissue Macrophages are Intercalated throughout Mouse Bone Lining Tissues and Regulate Osteoblast Function In Vitro

Ming-Kang Chang (2008). Characterisation and Functional Analysis of Osteal Macrophages: Resident Tissue Macrophages are Intercalated throughout Mouse Bone Lining Tissues and Regulate Osteoblast Function In Vitro PhD Thesis, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland.

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Author Ming-Kang Chang
Thesis Title Characterisation and Functional Analysis of Osteal Macrophages: Resident Tissue Macrophages are Intercalated throughout Mouse Bone Lining Tissues and Regulate Osteoblast Function In Vitro
School, Centre or Institute Institute for Molecular Bioscience
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2008-10
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Dr. Liza-Jane Raggatt
Dr. Allison Pettit
Prof. David Hume
Dr. Matt Sweet
Total pages 258
Total colour pages 40
Total black and white pages 218
Subjects 270000 Biological Sciences
Abstract/Summary Resident tissue macrophages are an integral component of many tissues and are important in development, homeostasis and repair. Macrophages are present at sites of both pathologic bone deposition and loss, and can produce osteo-active factors. These observations link macrophages to bone disease, however their contribution to bone dynamics is poorly understood. The molecular and cellular mechanisms driving osteoblast differentiation, matrix deposition and mineralization in vivo are incompletely understood and this deficiency is translated to limited ability to clinically manipulate bone formation. The emerging understanding of the bi-directional interactions between the osseus and immune systems (osteoimmunology) provides a novel avenue to identify mechanisms involved in the regulation of bone formation. In this study, the presence and distribution of macrophages on bone surfaces was systematically analysed and their functional contribution to the bone microenvironment was investigated. Using immunohistochemistry a discrete population of mature resident tissue macrophages was demonstrated throughout resting murine osteal tissues, termed OsteoMacs. Utilising MacGreen mice (csf1r promoter drives eGFP transgene expression in macrophages and other myeloid cells), it was demonstrated that OsteoMacs were intercalated amongst other bone lining cells in both the endosteum and periosteum. OsteoMacs were TRAPneg in situ and had limited osteoclastogenic ability in vitro therefore they are unlikely to serve as the immediate physiologic osteoclast precursors in vivo. Microarray gene expression profiling demonstrated that macrophage gene expression was regulated in response to a characteristic feature of the bone microenvironment, elevated extracellular calcium. Quantitative PCR validated upregulation of sphingosine kinase 1, interleukin 1 receptor antagonise, progressive ankylosis, vascular endothelial growth factor c and dipepetidase 2 mRNA in response to elevated extracellular calcium, suggesting the potential roles of these genes in this unique niche. GNF Symatlas microarray and quantitative PCR demonstrated the expression of macrophage-restricted genes throughout a 21-day primary osteoblast differentiation time course, suggesting co-isolation of OsteoMacs with primary osteoblasts. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that over all 15.9% of the digested primary calvarial cell preparations were OsteoMacs. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that OsteoMacs persisted and expanded in standard 21-day osteoblast differentiation assays. Contrary to previous studies, we demonstrated it was the OsteoMacs, and not osteoblasts, within calvarial preparations that selectively detected patho-physiological concentrations of the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A protocol was developed to deplete OsteoMacs from calvarial digests to determine if their presence within these cultures facilitates osteoblast differentiation or function. OsteoMac removal did not affect expression of the early osteoblast differentiation marker genes collagen type I or alkaline phosphatase. However, OsteoMac removal significantly decreased gene expression of the osteoblast mineralisation marker osteocalcin and mineralisation function, assessed by von Kossa staining. Microarray gene expression profiling demonstrated that osteoblast enrichment had a broad impact on transcription within the culture, identifying both candidate OsteoMac marker genes as well as osteoblast expressed genes that are regulated by OsteoMacs. Potential OsteoMac-enriched candidate genes insulin-like growth factor a, dipepetidase 2, glycoprotein NMB, and macrophage expressed gene 1 as well as osteoblast-specific genes bone sialoprotein and thrombospondin 1 were selected based on their potential involvement in osteoblast function. In a transwell co-culture system of enriched osteoblasts and macrophages, it was demonstrated that macrophages were required for osteoblast mineralisation in response to the physiologic remodelling stimulus, elevated extracellular calcium. A blocking soluble receptor strategy provided evidence that this is mediated in a BMP-2 and -4 independent manner. To investigate the relevance of OsteoMacs to bone formation in vivo, immunohistochemistry staining for the mature tissue macrophage marker F4/80 was performed in long bone sections from rapidly growing mice. OsteoMacs were closely associated with areas of bone formation in situ, forming a distinctive canopy structure over mature cuboidal osteoblasts (collagen type I+, osteocalcin+) on endosteal cortical surfaces. Using adapted histomorphometic analysis, we determined that 77 ± 2.1% (n = 7) of the endosteal mature osteoblast surface was covered by the F4/80+ OsteoMac canopy. This observation suggested that OsteoMacs are optimally located to regulate osteoblast function in vivo. In summary, we have demonstrated that OsteoMacs are an integral component of bone lining tissues and play a novel role in bone dynamics through regulating osteoblast function. These observations implicate OsteoMacs, in addition to osteoclasts and osteoblasts, as principal participants in bone dynamics. Further delineation of OsteoMac functions is likely to provide new avenues for treating bone disease and assisting bone repair.
Keyword macrophage
bone formation
Additional Notes colour pages: 23, 25, 29, 31, 35, 39, 43, 62, 64, 65, 67, 72, 74, 75, 77, 80, 84, 87, 88, 90, 102, 103, 108, 110, 111, 117, 128, 135, 137, 138, 151, 168, 240, 241, 242, 246, 247, 253, 254, 255 landscape pages: 201-236

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