Caveolae are specialized plasma membrane subdomains capable of transport and sophisticated compartmentalization of cell signaling. Numerous cell functions, including cell type-specific functions, involve caveolae and require caveolin-1, the major protein component of these organelles. Caveolae are particularly abundant in endothelial cells and participate in endothelial transcytosis, vascular permeability, vasomotor tone control, and vascular reactivity. Caveolin-1 drives the formation of plasma membrane caveolae and anchors them to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates cell interaction with the extracellular matrix, pulls together and regulates signaling molecules, and transports cholesterol. Via these functions, caveolin-1 might play an important role in cell movement through control of cell membrane composition and membrane surface expansion, polarization of signaling molecules and matrix proteolysis, and/or cytoskeleton remodeling. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are polarized in migrating endothelial cells, indicating they may play a role in cell motility. Several studies have shown that manipulation of caveolin-1 expression affects cell migration in a complex way. We are reviewing the current data and hypotheses in favor of an essential role for caveolae in cell migration.