Assessing dioxin precursors in pesticide formulations and environmental samples as a source of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil and sediment

Holt, Eva, Von Der Recke, Roland, Vetter, Walter, Hawker, Darryl, Alberts, Vincent, Kuch, Bertram, Weber, Roland and Gaus, Caroline (2008) Assessing dioxin precursors in pesticide formulations and environmental samples as a source of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil and sediment. Environmental Science and Technology, 42 5: 1472-1478.


Author Holt, Eva
Von Der Recke, Roland
Vetter, Walter
Hawker, Darryl
Alberts, Vincent
Kuch, Bertram
Weber, Roland
Gaus, Caroline
Title Assessing dioxin precursors in pesticide formulations and environmental samples as a source of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil and sediment
Formatted title Assessing dioxin precursors in pesticide formulations and environmental samples as a source of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil and sediment
Journal name Environmental Science and Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0013-936X
Publication date 2008-03-01
Year available 2008
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1021/es071687r
Volume 42
Issue 5
Start page 1472
End page 1478
Total pages 7
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher American Chemical Society
Collection year 2009
Language eng
Subject 259902 Environmental Chemistry (incl. Atmospheric Chemistry)
300804 Environmental Impact Assessment
961402 Farmland, Arable Cropland and Permanent Cropland Soils
Abstract An as yet unidentified origin of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in soil and sediment has repeatedly been described from different locations around the world, including Australia. Natural sources have been hypothesized to account for such contamination, which is characterized by a distinctive dioxin profile, in particular, elevated levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDD) as well as relatively low contributions of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The present study investigated whether OCDD formation via anthropogenically derived precursors represents a possible source in such samples. Soil and sediment from Australia and Hawaii were screened for known pesticide derived dioxin precursors. Two pesticide formulations containing pentachlorophenol (PCP), which are well-known to contain predominantly OCDD impurities, were also analyzed. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs), common byproducts of pesticide production, were detected at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in two PCP formulations and in five environmental samples. Of particular interest was the presence of the PCPP isomer 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenoxy)phenol (nonaC2PP), often also termed predioxin, in these samples. This compound readily undergoes ring closure to form OCDD under a range of conditions and environments. In addition, the pesticide PCP itself, which also represents a potent precursor to OCDD formation and is known to contain OCDD impurities, was detected in some environmental samples. The evidence from this study indicates that pesticides and their impurities play an important role in the dioxin contamination of Australian soils and sediments, as well as other locations with similar PCDD/F patterns. The results further suggest that formation of OCDD from pesticide derived precursors may be a possible past, present, and future pathway for contamination of environmental samples.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2009 Higher Education Research Data Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Fri, 30 Jan 2009, 17:08:28 EST by Marie-Louise Moore on behalf of National Res Centre For Environmental Toxicology