Within Australia, both State and Federal governments have exhibited support for biotechnology. Agriculture is currently considering whether to embrace new biotechnologies. Sustainable development means that economic growth should be promoted but guided in ways that are both environmentally benign and socially just. Does biotechnology offer new means of attaining sustainability? This paper looks at a number of biotechnology applications and evaluates their contribution to sustainable agriculture and development in the Central Queensland region. Results show that each application of the technology must be examined individually to determine its sustainability in terms of the environment, economic status and public acceptance. It concludes that the evaluation of environmental outcomes of releases in terms of current agro-environmental standards may not be sufficient to ensure the sustainability of the technology. It is necessary to question the sustainability of current agricultural practices as well.