Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica

Schlipalius, D. I., Chen, W., Collins, P.J., Nguyen, T., Reilly, P.E.B. and Ebert, P. R. (2008) Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica. Heredity, 100 5: 506-516. doi:10.1038/hdy.2008.4


Author Schlipalius, D. I.
Chen, W.
Collins, P.J.
Nguyen, T.
Reilly, P.E.B.
Ebert, P. R.
Title Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
Formatted title
Gene interactions constrain the course of evolution of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
Journal name Heredity   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0018-067X
1365-2540
Publication date 2008-05
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1038/hdy.2008.4
Volume 100
Issue 5
Start page 506
End page 516
Total pages 11
Editor G. Bell
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Collection year 2009
Language eng
Subject C1
960413 Control of Plant Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species in Farmland, Arable Cropland and Permanent Cropland Environments
060411 Population, Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics
0604 Genetics
Abstract Phosphine, a widely used fumigant for the protection of stored grain from insect pests, kills organisms indirectly by inducing oxidative stress. High levels of heritable resistance to phosphine in the insect pest of stored grain, Rhyzopertha dominica have been detected in Asia, Australia and South America. In order to understand the evolution of phosphine resistance and to isolate the responsible genes, we have undertaken genetic linkage analysis of fully sensitive (QRD14), moderately resistant (QRD369) and highly resistant (QRD569) strains of R. dominica collected in Australia. We previously determined that two loci, rph1 and rph2, confer high-level resistance on strain QRD569, which was collected in 1997. We have now confirmed that rph1 is responsible for the moderate resistance of strain QRD369, which was collected in 1990, and is shared with a highly resistant strain from the same geographical region, QRD569. In contrast, rph2 by itself confers only very weak resistance, either as a heterozygote or as a homozygote and was not discovered in the field until weak resistance (probably due to rph1) had become ubiquitous. Thus, high-level resistance against phosphine has evolved via stepwise acquisition of resistance alleles, first at rph1 and thereafter at rph2. The semi-dominance of rph2 together with the synergistic interaction between rph1 and rph2 would have led to rapid selection for homozygosity. A lack of visible fitness cost associated with alleles at either locus suggests that the resistance phenotype will persist in the field.
Formatted abstract
Phosphine, a widely used fumigant for the protection of stored grain from insect pests, kills organisms indirectly by inducing oxidative stress. High levels of heritable resistance to phosphine in the insect pest of stored grain, Rhyzopertha dominica have been detected in Asia, Australia and South America. In order to understand the evolution of phosphine resistance and to isolate the responsible genes, we have undertaken genetic linkage analysis of fully sensitive (QRD14), moderately resistant (QRD369) and highly resistant (QRD569) strains of R. dominica collected in Australia. We previously determined that two loci, rph1 and rph2, confer high-level resistance on strain QRD569, which was collected in 1997. We have now confirmed that rph1 is responsible for the moderate resistance of strain QRD369, which was collected in 1990, and is shared with a highly resistant strain from the same geographical region, QRD569. In contrast, rph2 by itself confers only very weak resistance, either as a heterozygote or as a homozygote and was not discovered in the field until weak resistance (probably due to rph1) had become ubiquitous. Thus, high-level resistance against phosphine has evolved via stepwise acquisition of resistance alleles, first at rph1 and thereafter at rph2. The semi-dominance of rph2 together with the synergistic interaction between rph1 and rph2 would have led to rapid selection for homozygosity. A lack of visible fitness cost associated with alleles at either locus suggests that the resistance phenotype will persist in the field.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Additional Notes Received 11 January 2007; Revised 18 December 2007; Accepted 5 January 2008; Published online 13 February 2008. Special issue: Experimental evolution

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2009 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 10 Dec 2008, 11:47:46 EST by Gail Walter on behalf of School of Biological Sciences