By exploring notions of tradition, creation and recognition, intrinsically linked to those of memory, knowledges and representations, this thesis aims at examining how dialectics of identity and techniques of rewriting shape contemporary Aboriginal Literature, particularly in works of fiction by Terri Janke, Kim Scott, Sam Watson, Eric Willmot and Alexis Wright, and poetry by Lisa Bellear, Lionel Fogarty, Romaine Moreton, Kerry Reed-Gilbert and Samuel Wagan Watson. Aboriginal writers have underlined the importance of oral traditions, of family and community relationships, and of their inalienable connection to the land through a poetics of anchoring and relation. Facing two hundred years of colonisation, they have represented and contested stories and acts of injustice and oppression, and presented an alternative version of the history of the Australian continent. By examining how Aboriginal ontologies and epistemologies are woven within the texts through strategies of oralisation and literarisation, this thesis shows how the writers continue oral and cultural practices, open up spaces for sharing, and create memories for the future. This thesis focuses on the poetic, didactic, political, and axiological dimensions of the works and performances by these writers, which allow them to renew ancestral traces, remind readers and listeners that places are known though their (hi)stories and challenge them to participate in the decolonisation of the minds and of society, and assert “the sovereignty of their imagination”.