Biological Activities of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils against Helicoverpa armigera

Hidayat, Yusup (2008). Biological Activities of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils against Helicoverpa armigera MPhil Thesis, School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland.

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Author Hidayat, Yusup
Thesis Title Biological Activities of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils against Helicoverpa armigera
School, Centre or Institute School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences
Institution University of Queensland
Publication date 2008
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Supervisor Dr Errol Hassan and Dr Neil Heather
Subjects 300201 Plant Biochemistry and Physiology
Abstract/Summary Hexane, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of Ajuga australis, Lantana camara and Tithonia diversifolia, and the essential oils of Backhousia citriodora, Melaleuca alternifolia and Melaleuca quinquenervia were investigated for their biological activities against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Most noticeable was the antifeedant effect of most of the plant extracts tested on H armigera. Based on the results of the choice feeding assays, the most effective extracts of each plant were hexane for A. australis (AIso=13.5 ~g/cm2), benzene for T diversifolia (AIso=43.5 ~g/cm2) and benzene for L. camara (AIso=99.7 ~g/cm2). For the three essential oils tested, only the essential oil of B. citriodora showed an antifeedant effect (Also choice test = 282.4 ~g/cm2). Among all plant extracts and essential oils investigated in this study, the hexane extract ofA. australis was the most potent antifeedant. None of the plant extracts tested significantly affected the survival of H armigera in either feeding or contact assays. Generally, ingesting plant extracts for 12-15 hours in a no-choice feeding assay had no significant effects on the growth and development of H armigera. Exceptions were the hexane and chloroform extracts of A. australis and the chloroform extract of L. camara, which slightly lengthened the larval development time, and the hexane extract ofL. camara which slightly reduced the pupal weight. Unlike the plant extracts, or the essential oils of M alternifolia and M. quinquenervia, the essential oil of B. citriodora had an effect on the survival ofH armigera. In a contact assay at the highest dose (200 ~g/larvae), this essential oil killed 33.3 % of the larvae tested after 48 hours. In a no-choice feeding assay, also at the highest dose (500 ~g/cm2), the essential oil of B. citriodora had no significant effect on larval survival, but heavily influenced the later development stages of the insect where more abnormal pupae were formed, and not a single adult emerged. Although it is without toxic effect, the Australian native plant, A. australis is considered to have the most potential for insect control. Its strong antifeedant effect at a low dose on H armigera may have a significant potential role in the implementation of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for this insect.

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Created: Fri, 21 Nov 2008, 14:55:13 EST